Cytokine Signalling Forum

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June 19

Impact of Janus Kinase Inhibitors on Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

Xie W, Huang Y, Xiao S, Sun X, Fan Y, Zhang Z.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214846

Existing evidence from RCTs indicated no significant change in CV risk for JAK inhibitor (JAKinib) treated RA patients in a short-term perspective compared to placebo. Patients with RA have an elevated risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors. Reaching remission or LDA in order to reduce CV events (CVE) is encouraged in the current EULAR recommendations. JAKinibs and their roles in the modulation of CV risk remain undetermined. This stud...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Upadacitinib as Monotherapy in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Methotrexate (SELECT-MONOTHERAPY): A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Phase 3 Study

Smolen JS, Pangan AL, Emery P, Rigby W, Tanaka Y, Vargas JI, Zhang Y, Damjanov N, Friedman A, Othman AA, Camp HS, Cohen S.
Lancet 2019. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30419-2

UPA monotherapy showed statistically significant improvements in clinical and functional outcomes versus continuing MTX in MTX inadequate-responder patients with RA. Despite its proven effectiveness and safety, many patients are unable to tolerate MTX due to its side-effects. Therapies that can be used without concomitant MTX therefore, have an important place in RA management. In previous studies, UPA has shown efficacy in combination with stable background csDMARDs in RA patients who are DMA...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

May 19

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Infection Risk with Small Molecule JAK Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Bechman K, Subesinghe S, Norton S, Atzeni F, Galli M, Cope AP, Winthrop KL, Galloway JB.
Rheumatology (Oxford). DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez087

How JAKinibs increase the risk of HZ reactivation is unclear. Roles of different JAKs in the immune response may suggest differences in safety profiles between drugs, underpinned by their differential JAK selectivity profiles. The authors undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate SI and opportunistic indicator infections including HZ in RA Phase II/III clinic trials with JAKinibs. A literature review of RCT of TOF (5 mg BID), BARI (4 mg OD) and UPA (15 mg OD) was conducted. A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Safety and Efficacy of Tofacitinib For Up to 9.5 Years in The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Final Results of a Global, Open-Label, Long-Term Extension Study

Wollenhaupt J, Lee EB, Curtis JR, Silverfield J, Terry K, Soma K, Mojcik C, DeMasi R, Strengholt S, Kwok K, Lazariciu I, Wang L, Cohen S.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 DOI: 10.1186/s13075-019-1866-2

TOF 5 mg and 10mg BID demonstrated a consistent safety profile and sustained efficacy for up to 9.5 years in this open-label LTE ORAL Sequel study. TOF 5 mg and 10 mg BID demonstrated consistent safety (as monotherapy and combination therapy) and efficacy within this open-label LTE study of RA patients. As RA requires long-term treatment, it’s important to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of RA therapies to understand the potential lifelong impact on patient health and quality of ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Evaluation of Pneumococcal and Tetanus Vaccine Responses in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Baricitinib: Results from a Long-Term Extension Trial Substudy

Winthrop KL, Bingham CO III, Komocsar WJ, Bradley J, Issa M, Klar R, Kartman CE.
Arthritis Res Ther 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s13075-019-1883-1

Approximately two thirds of long-term BARI treated patients achieved satisfactory humoral and functional responses to 13-serotype pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13), whereas tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTV) responses were less robust. Both RA management guidelines and recommendations suggest vaccinating patients with RA against pneumococcal disease with PCV-13 and PPSV-23. The inhibition of the JAK mediated signal transduction pathways in RA treatment could diminish vaccine responses. Given t...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

April 19

Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Herpes Zoster in Tofacitinib-Treated Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Zhang Z, Deng W, Wu Q, Sun L.
Immunotherapy. 2019. DOI: 10.2217/imt-2018-0113

The risk of TB and hepatitis B virus (HBV) appears to be no greater with TOF than with bDMARDs. Most cases of TB during TOF studies occurred in regions with high background rate of TB, including east Asian countries. TOF is also associated with a higher rate of herpes zoster (HZ) compared with bDMARDs. DMARDs used to treat RA can increase the risk of infections by causing a degree of immunosuppression. A range of bacterial and viral infections have been observed in association with DMARD thera...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Efficacy and Safety Data Based on Historical or Pre-Existing Conditions at Baseline for Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Who Were Treated with Baricitinib

Combe B, Balsa A, Sarzi-Puttini P, Tony HP, de la Torre I, Rogai V, Durand F, Witt S, Zhong J, Dougados M.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214261

In a post-hoc analysis, BARI 4 mg showed similar efficacy and safety during placebo-controlled and LTE observation periods regardless of the presence or absence of select comorbidities in RA patients. Patients with RA have a high prevalence of comorbidities. This post-hoc analysis investigated the effect of select comorbidities (depression, osteoporosis, hepatic, cardiovascular or pulmonary disorders) on the efficacy and safety of BARI 4 mg QD in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA and i...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

March 19

Safety Profile of Baricitinib in Japanese Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis with Over 1.6 Years Median Time in Treatment: An Integrated Analysis of Phase 2 and 3 Trials

Harigai M, Takeuchi T, Smolen JS, Winthrop KL, Nishikawa A, Rooney TP, Saifan CG, Issa M, Isaka Y, Akashi N, Ishii T, Tanaka Y.
Mod Rheumatol. 2019 Feb 20:1-23. DOI: 10.1080/14397595.2019.1583711

In this integrated analysis, BARI showed an acceptable safety profile in Japanese patients with up to 3.2 years of exposure. Other than incidences of herpes zoster (HZ), no major differences were noted with BARI safety in Japanese patients with RA, compared to the patients in the integrated database. BARI has previously demonstrated significant clinical efficacy and acceptable safety. Japanese patients who participated in the BARI clinical development programme, were comparable to those from th...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Baricitinib Induces LDL-C and HDL-C Increases in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Qiu C, Zhao X, She L, Shi Z, Deng Z, Tan L, Tu X, Jiang S, Tang B.
Lipids Health Dis 2019. DOI: 10.1186/s12944-019-0994-7

This study confirmed that BARI induced a stable dose-dependent increase in LDL-C and HDL-C levels. There was no significant difference of CV risk between BARI and placebo groups. High risk of CV events is strongly associated with RA. Mechanisms underlying the excess risk of CV events in RA remains unclear. This study aims to provide additional insight into the clinical safety of BARI, focusing on the effects of BARI on LDL-C and HDL-C levels and CV risk. A Cochrane analysis was performed on s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Network Meta‐Analysis of Tofacitinib versus Biologic Treatments in Moderate‐to‐Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Camean‐Castillo M, Gimeno‐Ballester V, Rios‐Sanchez E, Fenix‐Caballero S, Vázquez‐Real M, Alegre‐del Rey E.
J Clin Pharm Ther 2019;1–14. DOI 10.1111/jcpt.12795

This study suggests that many bDMARDs and tsDMARDs can be considered equivalent therapeutic alternatives in bDMARD-naïve RA patients, with inadequate response to csDMARDs. In the absence of randomised controlled trials comparing drugs, indirect comparisons and network meta-analysis may provide information to help select an optimal treatment alternative. In this network meta-analysis, 27 randomized controlled trials were analysed to assess the possibility that some drugs on the market may b...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

February 19

Comparisons of Hepatitis C Viral Replication in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Tocilizumab, Abatacept and Tofacitinib Therapy

Chen YM, Huang WN, Liao TL, Chen JP, Yang SS, Chen HH, Hsieh TY, Hung WT, Chen YH, Chen DY.
Ann Rheum Dis 2019 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214400

Tocilizumab (TCZ), abatacept (ABA) and tofacitinib (TOF) appear to have no major safety concerns for treatment of RA patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. HCV is an infectious disease which continues to present a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians in treating patients with RA. Previous reports demonstrate that the use of TNF targeted therapies in RA patients with HCV infections appear to have no major safety concerns. During short-term therapy with TCZ and ABA, data has show...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Tofacitinib in Combination with Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Efficacy, Radiographic and Safety Outcomes from the 24-Month Phase 3 ORAL Scan Study

van der Heijde D, Strand V, Tanaka Y, Keystone E, Kremer J, Zerbini CAF, Cardiel MH, Stanley Cohen S, Nash P, Song YW, Tegzová D, Gruben D, Wallenstein G, Connell CA, Fleischmann R, ORAL Scan investigators.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 Jan 22. DOI: 10. 1002/art.40803

RA patients receiving TOF 5 or 10 mg BID plus MTX showed sustained clinical and radiographic treatment effects through months 12-24. The safety profile was consistent with previous TOF studies. The 12-month data from the ORAL Scan study have been previously reported. This report assesses durability of responses, including structural damage progression, and safety with TOF through 24 months. Patients were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive TOF 5 or 10 mg BID, or PBO advanced to TOF with stable, ba...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Cardiovascular Safety During Treatment with Baricitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Taylor PC, Weinblatt ME, Burmester GR, Rooney TP, Witt S, Walls CD, Issa M, Salinas CA, Saifan C, Zhang X, Cardoso A, González-Gay MA, Takeuchi T.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 DOI: 10. 1002/art.40841

This study indicates no association between exposure to BARI and MACE, arterial thrombotic events (ATE), or congestive heart failure (CHF). Overall IRs for venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in BARI-treated patients falls within the reported range for patients with RA. RA patients have a greater risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases of arterial ischemic origin, and an increased risk of VTE. Studied frequencies of thromboembolic events in RA populations in the last decade has been reported as 2&nd...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

January 19

A Pooled analysis of the Safety of Tofacitinib as Monotherapy or in Combination with Background Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in a Phase 3 Rheumatoid Arthritis Population

Kivitz AJ, Cohen S, Keystone E, van Vollenhoven RF, Haraoui B, Kaine J, Fan H, Connell CA, Bananis E, Takiya L, Fleischmann R.
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Dec;48(3):406-415. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.07.006.

In this pooled analysis of Phase 3 Tofacitinib (TOF) trials, safety profiles were generally similar between patients receiving monotherapy and combination therapy. Although selected adverse events of interest showed lower incidence rates (IRs) for TOF monotherapy patients. TOF has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with csDMARDs. In this post-hoc analysis, data were pooled from six Phase 3 TOF studies in RA patients to further examine the safety profile when used as monotherapy or i...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Characterization and Changes of Lymphocyte Subsets in Baricitinib-Treated Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Integrated Analysis.

Tanaka Y, McInnes IB, Taylor PC, Byers NL, Chen L, de Bono S, Issa M, Macias WL, Rogai V, Rooney TP, Schlichting DE, Zuckerman SH, Emery P.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Dec;70(12):1923-1932. doi: 10.1002/art.40680

This review shows that changes in lymphocyte subsets were largely within normal reference ranges and were not associated with efficacy or safety end points. BARI is a selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of moderate to severe RA. BARI treatment is associated with changes to circulating lymphocyte and lymphocyte subsets, however detailed analyses of these effects, and their relevance to efficacy and safety is lacking. This study investigated the changes in lymphocyte cell s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Comparative Risk of Venous Thromboembolism with Tofacitinib versus Tumour Necrosis Factor Inhibitor: A Cohort study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Desai RJ, Pawar A, Weinblatt ME, Kim SC.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Dec 15. doi: 10.1002/art.40798.

Occurrences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 50, 865 RA patients initiating Tofacitinib (TOF) or a TNF inhibitor (TNFi) was infrequent. No significant risk of VTE for TOF versus TNFi was observed. Safety concerns of JAK inhibitor BARI include potentially increased risk of VTE at the higher 4 mg dose. It’s unclear if this is attributable to JAK-inhibition and extends to TOF. This study compared the risk of VTE with TOF, versus TNFi in real-world settings with RA patients. RA patients in...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

December 18

Evaluation of the Short-, Mid-, and Long-term Effects of Tofacitinib on Lymphocytes in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

van Vollenhoven R, Lee EB, Strengholt S, Mojcik C, Valdez H, Krishnaswami S, Biswas P, Lazariciu I, Hazra A, Clark JD, Hodge J, Wang L, Choy E.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 DOI: 10. 1002/art.40780

Tofacitinib (TOF) treatment is associated with short-term transient increases in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), followed by a gradual decline to reach steady state by ~48 months. Changes in both ALC and lymphocyte subset counts (LSC) were reversible upon TOF discontinuation. Low ALC but not LSC were associated with an increased risk of serious infective episodes (SIEs) and herpes zoster (HZ). This data supported the treatment recommendations on ALC counts for starting and continuing therapy w...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Influence of Age and Renal Impairment on the Steady State Pharmacokinetics of Filgotinib, a Selective JAK1 Inhibitor

Namour F, Fagard L, Van der AA, Harrison P, Xin Y, Tasset C.
Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec;84(12):2779-2789. DOI:10.1111/bcp.13726

Age and renal impairment (RI) had limited impact on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of filgotinib (FIL) but, in subjects with severe RI, exposure to the FIL metabolite was increased. FIL is a selective JAK1 inhibitor that is extensively, rapidly and proportionately absorbed after oral dosing from 50–200mg. Its major metabolite has a similar JAK1 selectivity profile but with reduced potency. In humans, exposure to the metabolite is higher by approximately 16–20 fold compared with the pare...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

November 18

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib in Patients Receiving Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs or Corticosteroids

van Vollenhoven R, Helt C, Arora V, Zhong J, Correia AP, de la Torre I, Muram D.
Rheumatol Ther 2018 Dec;5(2):525-536. DOI 10.1007/s40744-018-0128-0

Baricitinib (BARI) in combination with MTX and concomitant csDMARDs was shown to be efficacious, regardless of corticosteroid use in RA patients. MTX is prescribed to most RA patients but concomitant csDMARDs and/or corticosteroids can be added. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of BARI in two arms; with/without corticosteroids and; with MTX only/MTX plus csDMARD/csDMARDs only. Baseline characteristics and adverse reactions were also compared. Data were pooled from two phase 3 studie...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Herpes zoster in Tofacitinib: Risk is Further Increased with Glucocorticoids but not Methotrexate

Curtis JR, Xie F, Yang S, Bernatsky S, Chen L, Yun H, Winthrop K.
Arthritis Care Res 2018 DOI 10.1002/acr.23769

The rate of Herpes Zoster (HZ) in tofacitinib (TOF) users with concomitant glucocorticoids (GC) was approximately double that of other TOF combination therapies. TOF is an effective treatment for RA. Increased HZ risk has been observed with the use of JAK inhibitors, whereas the HZ risk with biologics and targeted RA therapies are comparable. This study evaluated the HZ risk in TOF users according to concomitant GC, MTX, both, or neither. MarketScan and Medicare data were used to identify 8030 ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Ankylosing Spondylitis (TORTUGA): Results from a Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial

Van der Heijde D, Baraliakos X, Gensler LS, Maksymowych WP, Tseluyko V, Nadashkevich O, Abi-Saab W, Tasset C, Meuleners L, Besuyen R, Hendrikx T, Mozafarian N, Liu K, Greer JM, Deodhar A, Landewé R.
Lancet 2018 Dec 1;392(10162):2378-2387. DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32463-2

In this first clinical trial of filgotinib in patients with active AS, filgotinib significantly reduced disease activity, and the signs and symptoms of AS compared with placebo. The TORTUGA trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial, that enrolled 263 adult patients from 30 sites in seven countries. Patients with active AS and an inadequate response or intolerance to two or more NSAIDs were assigned 1:1 to receive filgotinib 200 mg or placebo once daily for 12 week...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Psoriatic Arthritis (EQUATOR): Results from a Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial

Mease P, Coates LC, Helliwell PS, Stanislavchuk M, Rychlewska-Hanczewska A, Dudek A, Abi-Saab W, Tasset C, Meuleners L, Harrison P, Besuyen R, Van der Aa A, Mozafarian N, Greer JM, Kunder R, Van den Bosch F, Gladman DD.
Lancet. 2018 Dec 1;392(10162):2367-2377. DOI 10.1016/ S0140-6736(18)32483-8

In this first clinical trial of filgotinib in patients with PsA, filgotinib was effective in treating the signs and symptoms of active PsA across various disease manifestations. The EQUATOR trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial, that enrolled 191 adult patients from 25 sites in seven countries. Patients with active moderate-to-severe PsA and an insufficient response or intolerance to at least one csDMARD were assigned 1:1 to receive filgotinib 200 mg or placebo...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

October 18

A Network Meta-Analysis Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib and Baricitinib

Bae SC and Lee YH.
Z Rheumatol. 2018 Sep 6. DOI 10.1007/s00393-018-0531-5

Tofacitinib (TOF) 10mg and baricitinib (BARI) 4mg, in combination with methotrexate (MTX), were the most efficacious treatments in RA patients with an inadequate response to DMARDs or biologics. Both combination treatments presented acceptable safety profiles and were not associated with a significant risk of serious adverse events. This study employed a Bayesian approach to Meta-Analysis; combining the available evidence across a network of Randomised Controlled trials (RCTs). Twelve RCTs cont...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Dose Reduction of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Achieving Sustained Disease Control: Results of a Prospective Study

Takeuchi T, Genovese MC, Haraoui B, Li Z, Xie L, Klar R, Pinto Correia A, Otawa S, Lopez-Romero P, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Feb;78(2):171-178. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213271

In active RA patients, with an inadequate response (IR) to DMARDs who achieve low disease activity (LDA) following baricitinib (BARI) 4 mg treatment, disease control is better maintained with continued BARI 4 mg compared to tapering to 2 mg. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of BARI tapering in patients achieving sustained disease control with BARI 4 mg. In the long-term extension study RA-BEYOND, patients receiving BARI 4 mg who achieved sustained LDA or remission at two...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety Profile of Baricitinib in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis with over 2 Years Median Time in Treatment

Smolen J, Genovese M, Takeuchi T, Hyslop D, Macias W, Rooney T, Chen L, Dickson C, Riddle Camp J, Cardillo T, Ishii T and Winthrop K.
J Rheumatol. 2019 Jan;46(1):7-18. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.171361

Baricitinib (BARI) showed an acceptable 5.5-year safety profile in this integrated analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe, active RA. This study evaluated the safety profile of the oral, once daily Janus kinase inhibitor, BARI, in adults with moderately to severely active RA. Data from eight randomised clinical trials and one long-term extension study were pooled and analysed for placebo comparison and dose response. There were 3492 patients who received BARI for a total of 6637 patient-y...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

September 18

Structural Damage Progression in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Methotrexate, Baricitinib, or Baricitinib plus Methotrexate Based on Clinical Response in the Phase 3 RA-BEGIN Study

van der Heijde D, Durez P, Schett G, Naredo E, Østergaard M, Meszros G, De Leonardis F, De La Torre I, López-Romero P, Schlichting D, Nantz E, Fleichmann R.
Clinical Rheumatology 2018;37:2381–90 DOI 10.1007/s10067-018-4221-0

Patients with active RA and little or no prior DMARD treatment, who achieved sustained clinical responses, were less likely to show structural damage progression, irrespective of treatment. RA-BEGIN was a 52-week double-blind, multicentre Phase 3 trial, which assessed the safety and efficacy of BARI as monotherapy or in combination with MTX versus MTX monotherapy, in RA patients with no or limited prior DMARDs use.1-4 This post-hoc analysis evaluated the structural damage progression in patients...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Lipid Profile and Effect of Statin Treatment in Pooled Phase II and Phase III Baricitinib Studies

Taylor PC, Kremer JM, Emery P, Zuckerman SH, Ruotolo G, Zhong J, Chen L, Witt S, Saifan C, Kurzawa M, Otvos JD, Connelly MA, Macias WL, Schlichting DE, Rooney TP, de Bono S, McInnes IB.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jul;77(7):988-995. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212461

Baricitinib (BARI) was associated with increased lipid levels; baseline statins did not alter these profiles. The introduction of statins during treatment reduced total cholesterol and LDL-C. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in RA patients has been shown to alter lipid levels and is associated with reduced atherogenic risk. Increases in lipid levels, specifically HDL-C and LDL-C, have been observed in Phase 2 BARI studies1. This study analysed data from seven randomised RA Phase 2/3 studies o...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Real World, Cardiovascular

Efficacy of Monotherapy with Biologics and JAK inhibitors for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review

Emery P, Pope JE, Kruger K, Lippe R, DeMasi R, Lula S, Kola B.
ADV Ther 2018; 35(10):1525–63 DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0757-2

The b/tsDMARDs evaluated in this systematic literature review (SLR) were shown to be efficacious as monotherapies, although combination therapies usually achieved better treatment outcomes. Current treatment guidelines recommend combining b/tsDMARDs with MTX in the treatment of RA; however, up to a third of patients are treated with monotherapy. While previous SLRs1–3 have compared the efficacy of b/tsDMARD mono- versus MTX combination therapy they covered a limited number of randomised co...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

August 18

Adverse Events, Clinical Considerations and Management Recommendations in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with JAK Inhibitors

Atzeni F, Talotta R, Nucera V, Marino F, Gerratana E, Sangari D, Masala IF, Sarzi-Puttini P.
Exp Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Nov;14(11):945-956. DOI: 10.1080/1744666X.2018.1504678

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are efficacious in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and have a favourable safety profile. However adverse events (AE), in particular infections, are associated with the use of JAK inhibitors. This paper reviews the mechanism behind JAK inhibitors, the AEs associated with them, and provides consideration in the management of AEs in clinical practice. Data on two RA approved JAK inhibitors – tofacitinib (TOF) and baricitinib (BARI) – was obtained usin...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

July 18

Thromboembolism with Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitor for Rheumatoid Arthritis: How Real is the Risk?

Scott IC, Hider SL, Scott DL.
Drug Safety 2018 Jul;41(7):645–53

Current data suggests that JAK inhibitors may increase the risk of thromboembolism and pulmonary thrombosis (PT) in RA. Two JAK inhibitors – baricitinib (BARI) and tofacitinib (TOF) – are considered effective treatments for RA, however, there are concerns about the thromboembolic risks associated with them. In August 2017, the summary of product characteristics for BARI was revised to include a warning of developing DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), with recommendations that BARI sho...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Safety and Efficacy of Upadacitinib in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory To Biologic Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (SELECT-BEYOND): a Double-Blind, Randomised Controlled Phase 3 Trial

Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Combe B, Hall S, Rubbert-Roth A, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Mohamed M-EF, Meerwein S, Pangan AL.
Lancet 2018;391:2513–24

Upadacitinib (UPA) extended release formulation was effective in treating patients with moderate-to-severe RA with an inadequate response to bDMARDs. Phase 2 study data has shown that UPA is an efficacious and safe treatment for active RA.1,2 SELECT-BEYOND was a double-blind, long-term extension, Phase 3 study to assess the efficacy of UPA in patients with RA who were bDMARD-IR. The first 12-weeks of SELECT-BEYOND were placebo-controlled, with a double-blind period followed by an ongoing double...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety and Efficacy of Upadacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (SELECT-NEXT): a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Trial

Burmester GR, Kremer JM, Van den Bosch F, Kivitz A, Bessette L, Li Y, Zhou Y, Othman AA, Pangan AL, Camp HS.
Lancet 2018;391:2503–12

Patients with moderate-to-severe active RA had significant improvements in clinical signs and symptoms with upadacitinib (UPA) compared with placebo. In Phase 2 studies, UPA showed favourable efficacy when administered twice daily as an immediate-release formulation at doses of 6–12 mg in patients with active RA who had TNFi-IR.1,2 An extended-release formulation allowing once-daily (QD) administration was developed for Phase 3 studies. SELECT-NEXT was a double-blind, multicentre, Phase 3...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 18

Effects of Baricitinib on Radiographic Progression of Structural Joint Damage at 1 year in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Conventional Synthetic Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs

van der Heijde D, Dougados M, Chen YC, Greenwald M, Drescher E, Klar R, Xie L, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Witt SL, Schlichting DE, de Bono S, Emery P.
RMD Open. 2018 May 8;4(1):e000662. DOI: 10.1136/rmdopen-2018-000662

Once daily baricitinib (BARI) inhibited radiographic progression of structural joint damage in patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to csDMARDs over 48 weeks. Current treatment goals aim to use DMARDs to inhibit structural joint damage and prevent long-term functional disability. In RA-BUILD¹, BARI was shown to significantly reduce radiographic joint damage progression in patients with active RA, with an intolerance or inadequate response to csDMARDs. Here, the authors repor...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Radiographic

Long-term Radiographic and Patient-reported Outcomes in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Tofacitinib: ORAL Start and ORAL Scan Post-hoc Analyses

Strand V, Kavanaugh A, Kivitz AJ, van der Heijde D, Kwok K, Akylbekova E, Soonasra A, Snyder M, Connell C, Bananis E, Smolen JS.
Rheumatol Ther. 2018 Dec;5(2):341-353. doi: 10.1007/s40744-018-0113-7

Tofacitinib (TOF) therapy reduced the progression of structural joint damage at 2 years, in patients of all disease states, compared with patients given methotrexate (MTX). Early intervention with DMARDs aim to prevent the development of future RA symptoms and inhibit the progression of structural damage to the joints. This post-hoc analysis uses data from two Phase 3 TOF studies, to examine the efficacy of early intervention with TOF on long-term radiographic outcomes and disease activity sta...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Radiographic

May 18

Pharmacokinetics of Upadacitinib with Clinical Regimens of the Extended-Release Formulation Utilized in Rheumatoid Arthritis Phase 3 Trials

Mohamed MEF, Zeng J, Marroum PJ, Song IH, Othman AA.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2019 Feb;8(2):208-216. doi: 10.1002/cpdd.462

Upadacitinib (UPA) extended release (ER) formulation dosing achieved the target profile that enables single dosing in patients with RA. In early clinical studies, UPA was given as an immediate release (IR) formulation, however patients were noted to experience fluctuations in blood plasma concentrations. To enhance patient compliance in UPA Phase 3 trials, ER tablets have been developed. Here, authors aimed at characterising the pharmacokinetics of UPA single and multiple doses of ER compared ...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

Analysis of Spontaneous Postmarket Case Reports Submitted to the FDA Regarding Thromboembolic Adverse Events and JAK Inhibitors

Verden A, Dimbil M, Kyle R, Overstreet B, Hoffman KB.
Drug Saf 2018 Apr; 41(4):357–61 DOI: 10.1007/s40264-017-0622-2

Thromboembolic-related adverse events (AEs) were, in general, not considered a class-wide safety concern after analysis of tofacitinib (TOF) and ruxolitinib (RUX) clinical data, though pulmonary thrombosis is considered a potential class-wide safety issue and portal vein thrombosis was considered a potential safety issue for RUX. During analysis of baricitinib (BARI) clinical trial data, the FDA expressed concerns regarding thromboembolic events. Following this, the CHMP have recently added a ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Lack of Early Change in Disease Activity Predicts a Low Probability of Achieving Low Disease Activity at Month 6

Van Vollenhoven RF, Lee EB, Fallon L, Zwillich SH, Wilkinson B, Chapman D, Demasi R, Keystone E.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019 Jan;71(1):71-79. DOI: 10.1002/acr.23585

This post-hoc analysis of two, Phase 3 studies, ORAL Start and ORAL Standard shows that early treatment response can predict long-term disease activity outcomes. EULAR recommendations suggest that treat-to-target strategies require regular target assessments with treatment approaches changed if targets are not reached at 6 months. To optimize this strategy, therapy outcomes should be known, and the relationship between short and long-term outcomes defined. The current analysis focused on the d...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Evaluation of Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Tofacitinib by RAPID3: Post Hoc Analyses from Two Phase 3 Trials

Strand V, Lee EB, Yazici Y, Dikranian A, Wilkinson B, Takiya L, Zang C, Bananis E, Bergman MJ.
Clin Rheumatol 2018 Aug; 37(8):2043–53

Patients given tofacitinib (TOF) who achieved Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID3) remission or low disease activity (LDA) at 6 months, had improved long-term outcomes at 2 years, compared to patients with moderate or high disease activity (MDA/HDA) at 6 months. RAPID3¹ is a patient-reported evaluation of disease activity, based on pooled PROs; patient global assessment, patient assessment of arthritic pain and HAQ-DI scores. Previous studies with tocilizumab have suggested ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, PRO

April 18

Baricitinib for Previously Treated Moderate or Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal

Ren S, Bermejo I, Simpson E, Wong R, Scott DL, Young A, Stevenson M.
Pharmacoeconomics 2018 Jul; 36(7):769–78

In this National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) single technology appraisal of baricitinib (BARI) monotherapy and combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX), BARI efficacy was considered comparable to bDMARDs and a cost-effective use of National Health Service (NHS) resources. NICE is an independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on health technologies in England. To be recommended by NICE, the company must provide evidence to prove BARI’s effectiveness, b...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Tofacitinib for Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis After the Failure of Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal

Uttley L, Bermejo I, Shijie R, Martyn-St James M, Wong R, Scott DL, Young A, Stevenson M.
Pharmacoeconomics 2018 Sep; 36(9): 1063–72

In this National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) single technology appraisal of tofacitinib (TOF) plus methotrexate (MTX), TOF had similar efficacy and comparable costs to recommended bDMARDs plus MTX in patients with RA. NICE is an independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on health technologies in England. To be recommended by NICE, the company must provide evidence to prove TOF’s effectiveness, both clinically and costly. This evidence based review, rep...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Effectiveness and Safety of Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Cohort Study

Machado MAÁ, Moura CS, Guerra SF, Curtis JR, Abrahamowicz M, Bernatsky S.
Arthritis Res Ther 2018; 20(1):60 doi: 10.1186/s13075-018-1539-6

A retrospective cohort study of tofacitinib (TOF) revealed that patients previously treated with methotrexate who initiated TOF, presented no differences in hospitalised infections or effectiveness, compared with non-TNF biologics. Currently, TOF is recommended in ACR and EULAR guidelines as an alternative to biologics after first-line cDMARD therapy. Previous indirect comparisons have shown that patients with RA who experience cDMARD failure show similar efficacy when given TNFis, abatacept, ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Safety

Effect of Filgotinib, a Selective JAK1 Inhibitor, with or without Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Patient-Reported Outcomes

Genovese MC, Westhovens R, Meuleners L, van der Aa A, Harrison P, Tasset C, Kavanaugh A.
Arthritis Res Ther 2018; 20(1):57 doi: 10.1186/s13075-018-1541-z

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from two, Phase 2b, filgotinib (FIL) studies, DARWIN 1 and 2, revealed that patients receiving FIL had improved and sustained PRO responses compared with placebo. With suboptimal RA treatment, patients lose joint functional ability, which heavily influences patient quality of life. The previously reported data from the DARWIN studies, concluded that patients given FIL achieved clinically relevant dose-dependent improvements compared with patients given placebo&s...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, PRO

March 18

Worldwide, 3-year, Post-Marketing Surveillance Experience with Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Cohen S, Curtis JE, DeMasi R, Chen Y, Fan H, Soonasra A, Fleischmann R.
Rheumatol Ther 2018 Jun; 5(1):283–91

This real-world analysis of tofacitinib (TOF) revealed that AEs reported by patients with RA from 2012 to 2015 were consistent with the known safety profile of TOF – no new safety risks were identified. As of August 2017, it is estimated that more than 102 000 patients worldwide have received TOF, but TOF safety has not been evaluated in patients with real-world experience. This analysis addressed this – by evaluating the safety of TOF from post-marketing surveillance (PMS) reports ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Safety

Effect of Discontinuation or Initiation of Methotrexate or Glucocorticoids on Tofacitinib Efficacy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Post Hoc Analysis

Fleischmann R, Wollenhaupt J, Cohen S, Wang L, Fan H, Bandi V, Andrews J, Takiya L, Bananis E, Weinblatt ME.
Rheumatol Ther 2018 Jun; 5(1):203–14. DOI: 10.1007/s40744-018-0093-7

Methotrexate (MTX) or Glucocorticoid (GC) discontinuation has little effect on CDAI response in patients given tofacitinib (TOF) for up to 3 years. Patients receiving TOF who showed initial improvements benefitted from initiation of MTX or GCs. Concomitant treatments such as MTX or GC are commonly used in combination with RA therapies to improve or accelerate clinical responses. However, their use is associated with many adverse events so clinicians aim to use them for a minimal duration. This ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Response to Baricitinib based on Prior Biologic Use in Patients with Refractory Arthritis

Genovese MC, Kremer JM, Kartman CE, Schlichting DE, Xie L, Carmack T, Pantojas C, Burston JS, Tony HP, Macias WL, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018 May; 57(5):900-908

Baricitinib (BARI) 2 or 4 mg had a beneficial treatment effect on patients with moderate to severe RA compared with placebo (PBO), irrespective of the number or nature of prior patient bDMARD use. The current therapeutic target for patients with established RA is low disease activity, but many patients fail to achieve this due to inadequate responses to DMARD therapies. With this patient population growing, therapies for these patients are considered one of the greatest unmet needs in RA. This...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

February 18

Tofacitinib with Conventional Synthetic Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in Chinese Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Patient-reported Outcomes from a Phase 3 Randomised Controlled Trial

Li Z, An Y, Su H, Li H, Xu J, Zheng Y, Li G, Kwok K, Wang L, Wu Q.
Int J Rheum Dis 2018; 21(2):402–14

This Chinese sub-population of patients with RA from ORAL Sync reported significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes (PROs), which were maintained up to 12 months from tofacitinib (TOF) treatment initiation. ORAL Sync was a randomised, Phase 3 study investigating TOF therapy in combination with csDMARDs in patients with active RA who had previously had an inadequate response to csDMARDs. To date, this is the only Phase 3 study of TOF in patients from China with RA. This analysis inclu...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, PRO

December 17

Effect of Glucocorticoids on the Clinical and Radiographic Efficacy of Tofacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Posthoc Analysis of Data from 6 Phase III studies

Charles-Schoeman C, van der Heijde D, Bumester GR, Nash P, Zerbini CAF, Connell CA, Fan H, Kwok K, Bananis E, Fleischmann R.
J Rheumatol 2018 Feb; 45(2):177-87

In this post hoc analysis, six Phase 3 studies were used to analyse the effect of glucocorticoids (GC) on the efficacy of tofacitinib (TOF) in patients with RA. Concomitant use of GC did not affect the clinical or radiographic outcomes of patients treated with TOF. Data from all six clinical trials were evaluated, with four studies (ORAL Scan, ORAL Standard, ORAL Sync and ORAL Step) being pooled for analysis. In these studies, MTX was used as a comparison and patients were required to maintain ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

JAK Inhibition as a Therapeutic Strategy for Immune and Inflammatory Diseases

Schwartz DM, Kanno Y, Villarino A, Ward M, Gadina M, O’Shea JJ.
Nat Rev Drug Discov 2017;16:843–62 DOI: 10.1038/nrd.2017.201

Janus kinases (JAKs) are essential mediators of downstream signaling pathways in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes current clinical data on first- and second-generation JAK inhibitors (jakinibs) and discusses their use for the treatment of immune and inflammatory conditions. First generation jakinibs such as tofacitinib, baricitinib, and ruxolitinib, non-selectively inhibit JAK-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are major contributors to immunopathology. ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Tofacitinib Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Direct Comparison Study between Biologic-naive and Experienced Patients

Mori S, Yoshitama T, Ueki Y.
Intern Med. 2018 Mar 1;57(5):663-670. doi: 10.2169/internalmedicine.9341-17

This 6-month prospective direct comparison study analysed the effectiveness of tofacitinib (TOF) therapy on bDMARD-naïve and bDMARD-experienced patients. bDMARD-naïve patients were more responsive to TOF therapy than bDMARD-experienced patients. The study analysed the data of 113 patients diagnosed with high or moderate disease activity, defined using CDAI scores. All patients had failed to achieve CDAI low disease activity or remission with MTX therapy for ≥3 months. Patients were...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

November 17

Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib: Clinical Outcomes and the Risk of Concomitant Therapy

Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, Lindsey S, Tanaka Y, Yamaoka K, Valdez H, Hirose T, Nduaka CI, Wang L, Mendelsohn AM, Fan H, Chen C, Bananis E.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2017;69(10):1960–68

The results of this analysis of patients with herpes zoster (HZ) within the global tofacitinib (TOF) RA programme suggest that there is likely to be a greater HZ risk in patients receiving TOF and glucocorticoids compared with patients receiving TOF monotherapy. The global TOF RA development programme comprised 2 Phase 1, 9 Phase 2, 6 Phase 3 and 2 long-term extension studies. These studies included 6192 patients; data were reviewed to identify cases of HZ. Crude incidence rates of number of pa...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Tofacitinib or Adalimumab versus Placebo for Psoriatic Arthritis

Mease P, Hall S, FitzGerald O, van der Heijde D, Merola J F, Avila-Zapata F, Cieslak D, Graham D, Wang C, Menon S, Hendrikx T, Kanik K S.
N Engl J Med 2017; 377:1537-50. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615975

In the Phase 3 OPAL Broaden trial of patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with inadequate response to ≥1 csDMARD, superior efficacy was observed in patients treated with tofacitinib (TOF) compared with those given placebo. Patients were randomised to: 5 mg TOF BID, 10 mg TOF BID, 40 mg adalimumab administered subcutaneously q2W, or placebo with a switch to 5 mg TOF at Month 3. Adalimumab was used as an active control in the study. A variety of primary and secondary endpoints wer...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Tofacitinib for Psoriatic Arthritis in Patients with an Inadequate Response to TNF Inhibitors

Gladman D, Rigby W, Azevedo VF, Behrens F, Blanco R, Kaszuba A, Kudlacz E, Wang C, Menon S, Hendrikx T, Kanik KS.
N Engl J Med 2017;377:1525–36.

The study data presented that tofacitinib (TOF) improves efficacy response rates in patients with severe psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who have an inadequate response to TNF inhibitors. The Phase 3 Oral Psoriatic Arthritis Trial (OPAL) Beyond study evaluated patients with active PsA who had inadequate responses to more than one TNFi. Patients were randomised 2:2:1:1 to 5 mg TOF BID or 10 mg TOF BID for 6 months; or PBO, with a switch to 5 mg TOF BID or to 10 mg BID at 3 months. Primary endpoints w...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib in Elderly Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Fleischmann R, Alam J, Arora V, Bradley J, Schlichting DE, Muram D, Smolen JS.
RMD Open. 2017; 3(2): e000546. doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2017-000546

In this post hoc analysis of pooled data from two randomised controlled trials, RA-BUILD and RA-BEAM, age was shown not to be a contraindication for use of baricitinib. Patients in RA-BUILD were csDMARD-inadequate responder(IR) patients who received an oral placebo or 2 mg or 4 mg baricitinib once daily. Patients in RA-BEAM were MTX-IR patients and received an oral placebo, 4 mg baricitinib once daily or subcutaneous adalimumab every 2 weeks. Efficacy and safety of baricitinib in elderly patie...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Treatment Persistence and Healthcare Costs Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Changing Biologics in the USA

Chastek B, Chieh-I Chen, Proudfoot C, Shinde S, Kuznik A, Wei W.
Adv Ther. 2017 Nov;34(11):2422-2435. doi: 10.1007/s12325-017-0617-5

Updated treatment guidelines recommend the use of different mechanism of action (MOA) therapies earlier in the treatment course. Clinical studies have revealed that this approach may be better than TNFi cycling, and may be more cost effective. This study of Commercial and Medicare Advantage claims data showed that patients who switched MOA had higher treatment persistence and lower healthcare costs than TNFi cyclers. After the first TNFi claim, patients either cycled to another TNFi (n=935) or...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Value

October 17

Patient-reported Outcomes of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and No or Limited Prior Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drug Treatment

Schiff M, Takeuchi T, Fleischmann R, Gaich CL, DeLozier AM, Schlichting D, Kuo W, Won J, Carmack T, Rooney T, Durez P, Shaikh S, Hidalgo RP, van Vollenhoven R, Zerbini C.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2017 Sep 18;19(1):208

RA-BEGIN was a Phase 3, double-blind randomised active comparator-controlled study to evaluate baricitinib as monotherapy or in combination with MTX in patients with active RA who were naïve to csDMARDS and bDMARDS. In this analysis of the RA-BEGIN study, baricitinib alone or with MTX when used as initial therapy resulted in significant improvements in most patient-reported outcome measures compared with MTX. At baseline, study participants had active RA, impaired physical function, mode...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, PRO

Lymphoma in the Tofacitinib Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Development Program

Mariette X, Chen C, Biswas P, Kwok K, Boy MG.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018 May;70(5):685-694. doi: 10.1002/acr.23421

Analysis of 19 studies involving the use of tofacitinib to treat RA showed that lymphoma incidence rate and type were consistent with expectations in the RA population as a whole, and did not increase with tofacitinib exposure time. Previous research has suggested that there is a link between the likelihood of developing malignant tumours and RA. Previously, it has been unclear whether the increased rates seen are due to the use of immunomodulatory therapies, such as tofacitinib, which are used...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

September 17

The Safety and Immunogenicity of Live Zoster Vaccination in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Before Starting Tofacitinib: A Randomized Phase II Trial

Winthrop KL, Wouters A, Choy E, Soma K, Hodge J, Nduaka C, Biswas P, Needle E, Passador MS, Mojcik C, Rigby W.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;69(10):1969-1977. doi: 10.1002/art.40187

Patients with RA who started treatment with tofacitinib 2–3 weeks after being vaccinated against herpes zoster had similar varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses to the live vaccine compared to patients who received placebo. In this Phase 2 study, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated before receipt of live zoster vaccine (LZV) and at 2, 6 and 14 weeks after vaccination, having been randomised to tofacitinib 5 mg BID or placebo, 2&nda...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Winthrop KL, Yamanaka H, Valdez H, Mortensen E, Chew R, Krishnaswami S, Kawabata T, Riese R.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2014;66:2675–84

Patients who were treated with tofacitinib in the RA clinical development programme were more likely to develop herpes zoster than were those who received placebo. Cases of herpes zoster reported by investigators in the Phase 2, Phase 3 and long-term extension studies of tofacitinib were evaluated. Herpes zoster was noted in 5% of tofacitinib-treated patients; only 7% of these cases were serious, no patients with herpes zoster died and only 10% permanently discontinued tofacitinib treatment. T...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Patient-reported Outcomes from a Phase 3 Study of Baricitinib versus Placebo or Adalimumab in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Secondary Analyses from the RA-BEAM Study

Keystone EC, Taylor PC, Tanaka Y, Gaich C, DeLozier AM, Dudek A, Velasco Zamora J, Covarrubias Cobos JA, Rooney T, de Bono S, Arora V, Linetzky B, Weinblatt ME.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76(11):1853-1861. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211259

This paper describes the patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collected in RA-BEAM, a Phase 3 study of baricitinib compared with both placebo and adalimumab in patients with RA and an inadequate response to MTX. PRO measures evaluated include health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical function, disability, fatigue, sleep, mental health status, work productivity and work activity impairment. The RA-BEAM study demonstrated that patients treated with baricitinib experienced a greater impro...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, PRO

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib through 128 Weeks in an Open-label, Longterm Extension Study in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Keystone EC, Genovese MC, Schlichting DE, de la Torre I, Beattie SD, Rooney TP, Taylor PC.
J Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;45(1):14-21. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.161161

This open-label extension (OLE) of a Phase 2b randomised controlled trial (RCT) found that safety data collected over 2 years of treatment were generally consistent with previous findings for baricitinib in RA. In the RCT, baricitinib demonstrated significant improvement in disease activity compared with placebo and an acceptable safety profile in patients with RA and an inadequate response to MTX. Patients who completed the 24-week double-blind period of the study were eligible for the OLE. Ra...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

August 17

Evaluation of Newly Proposed Remission Cut-points for Disease Activity Score in 28 Joints (DAS28) in Rheumatoid Arthritis upon IL-6 Pathway Inhibition

Schoels M, Alasti F, Smolen JS and Aletaha D.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2017 Jul 4;19(1):155. doi: 10.1186/s13075-017-1346-5

DAS28 is not currently included in the joint remission definitions of the ACR and the EULAR because its formula is disproportionately influenced by Acute Phase Response (APR). IL-6 pathway blockers or JAK inhibitors greatly reduce APR, causing patients to be classed as in DAS28 remission despite still having multiple swollen joints. To make DAS28 remission criteria more stringent, the alternative cut-points of <1.9 and <2.2 for CRP and ESR, respectively, have been proposed. This study q...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

A Comparison of Discontinuation Rates of Tofacitinib and Biologic Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatic Drugs in Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Systematic Review and Bayseian Network Meta-analysis Regression

Park JS-K, Lee MY, Jang E-J, Kim H-L, Ha D-M, Lee E-K.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2017;35:689–99

Based on a Bayesian network meta-analysis (NMA) in patients with RA who previously showed failure with csDMARDs or biologics, discontinuation rates between tofacitinib (TOF) and biologics (TNFis, abatacept [ABT], rituximab [RTX] and tocilizumab [TCZ]) differed based on previous treatments and reasons for discontinuation. Data were collected from randomised controlled trials (RCT) found from literature searches from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE. Discon...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Treatment Persistence and Clinical Outcomes of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Cycling or Switching to a New Mechanism of Action Therapy: Real-world Observational Study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients in the United States with Prior Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy

Wei W, Knapp K, Wang L, Chen C-I, Craig GL, Ferguson K Schwartzman S.
Adv Ther. 2017 Aug;34(8):1936-1952. doi: 10.1007/s12325-017-0578-8

This retrospective, observational study used a real-world US clinical database to demonstrate greater effectiveness of switching to a therapy with an alternative mechanism of action (MOA) vs cycling between TNF inhibitors (TNFis) in patients in which TNFi therapy has failed. Between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, a total of 613 of the observed patients failed a TNFi therapy and then either cycled to another TNFi therapy (54.2%) or switched to a therapy with an alternative MOA (45.8%). The most...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Efficacy

Analysis of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer across the Tofacitinib Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Programme

Curtis JR, Lee EB, Martin G, Mariette X, Terry TT, Chen Y, Geier J, Andrews J, Kaur M, Fan H, Nduaka CI.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2017;35:614–22

Because non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is one of the most common malignancies associated with RA immunomodulatory therapies, this analysis looked to determine the rate of NMSC incidence per 100 patient-years in patients with RA receiving TOF in the clinical trial programme. The Phase 1, 2, and 3 IRs (combined) for both TOF 5- and 10 mg were low and comparable to those of adalimumab, MTX and placebo, IRs remained stable over time. TOF doses used in the 2 Phase 1; 8 Phase 2; and 6 Phase 3 studi...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

July 17

Long-term safety of tofacitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis up to 8.5 years: integrated analysis of data from the global clinical trials

Cohen BS, Tanaka Y, Mariette X, Curtis JR, Lee EB, Nash P, Winthrop KL, Charles-Shoeman C, Thirunavukkarasu K, DeMasi R, Geier J, Kwok K, Wang L, Riese R, Wollenhaupt J.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:1253-1262. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210457

This analysis of exposure to tofacitinib, an oral JAKi for the treatment of RA, for up to 8.5 years allowed estimation of safety events with improved precision versus previous tofacitinib reports. Adverse events were generally stable over time; no new safety signals were observed compared with previous tofacitinib reports. Data were collated into an integrated safety summary of tofacitinib in adult patients with active RA, and included data spanning the tofacitinib clinical programme: from 2 P...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib Monotherapy, Tofacitinib with Methotrexate, and Adalimumab with Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (ORAL Strategy): A Phase 3b/4, Double-Blind, Head-To-Head, Randomised Controlled Trial

Fleischmann R, Mysler E, Hall S, Kivitz A, Moots R, Luo Z, DeMasi R, Soma K, Zhang R, Takiya L, Tatulych S, Mojcik C, Krishnaswami S, Menon S, Smolen J, on behalf of the ORAL Strategy investigators.
Lancet. 2017 Jul 29;390(10093):457-468. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31618-5

In this first head-to-head non-inferiority trial assessing a JAKi ± MTX directly compared with a TNFi + MTX in patients with RA, tofacitinib (TOF) + MTX showed non-inferiority to adalimumab (ADA) + MTX. Non-inferiority was not shown for TOF monotherapy versus TOF + MTX, or versus ADA + MTX. In this 52-week study, MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients were randomised 1:1:1 to receive TOF 5 mg BID monotherapy, TOF 5 mg BID + MTX or ADA 40 mg every other week + MTX. The primary endpoint, A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Pathogenetic Insights from the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

McInnes I, Schett G.
Lancet 2017;389:2328–37 DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31472-1

This review paper examines the understanding gained from looking at the effects of specific immune interventions in the treatment of RA. The introduction of novel IL-6 agents has provided the ideal opportunity to explore the distinct effect of cytokine inhibition, as opposed to receptor inhibition, at the molecular level. Mechanistic insights into TNF could also be obtained in the future with advanced molecular and informatics approaches, and future biopsy studies will be important to explore t...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

Efficacy, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus kinase 1 Inhibitor, after Short-term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of Two randomized Phase IIA Trials

Vanhoutte F, Mazur M, Voloshyn O, Stanislavchuk M, Van der Aa A, Namour F, Galien R, Meuleners L, van ‘t Klooster G.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;69(10):1949-1959. doi: 10.1002/art.40186

In two 4-week exploratory Phase 2a trials in MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients with RA, the highly selective JAK1 inhibitor filgotinib met the primary endpoint of ACR20 at Week 4, showing greater response than placebo. Study 1, a proof-of-concept study, included 127 patients randomised to placebo, filgotinib 100 mg BID or filgotinib 200 mg QD. Study 2, was a dose-ranging study and included 91 patients randomised to placebo, filgotinib 30 mg QD, filgotinib 75 mg QD, filgotinib 150 mg QD or ...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

June 17

Biologics or Tofacitinib for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis Naïve to Methotrexate: a Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis

Singh JA, Hossain A, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Mudano AS, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Suarez-Almazor ME, Buchbinder R, Maxwell LJ, Tugwell P, Wells GA.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 8;5:CD012657. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012657

This Cochrane systemic review and network meta-analysis looked at the benefits and harms of biologics or tofacitinib in patients with RA not previously treated with MTX. Using data from 19 RCTs including 6,485 participants, the review found that biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab) in combination with MTX improved signs and symptoms of RA (ACR50) and increased the chances of remission (DAS <1.6 or DAS28 <2.6). There was also some evidence of an ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Filgotinib (GLPG0634/GS-6034), an oral selective JAK1 inhibitor, is effective as monotherapy in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results from a randomised, dose-finding study (DARWIN 2)

A Kavanaugh, J Kremer, L Ponce, R Cseuz, O V Reshetko, M Stanislavchuk, M Greenwald, A Van der Aa, F Vanhoutte, C Tasset and P Harrison.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:1009–19

In these two Phase 2b studies, filgotinib (a selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to improve the signs and symptoms of RA (compared with placebo), either as monotherapy or when added to MTX. DARWIN 1 included 594 patients with moderate to severe RA on a stable dose of MTX, while DARWIN 2 included 283 patients who stopped taking MTX before the start of the study. After 12 weeks’ treatment, significantly more patients who were receiving filgotinib 100 mg or 200 mg daily in DARWIN 1 or any ...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Filgotinib (GLPG0634/GS-6034), an oral JAK1 selective inhibitor, is effective in combination with methotrexate (MTX) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and insufficient response to MTX: results from a randomised, dose-finding study (DARWIN 1)

R Westhovens, P C Taylor, R Alten, D Pavlova, F Enríquez-Sosa, M Mazur, M Greenwald, A Van der Aa, F Vanhoutte, C Tasset and P Harrison.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:998–100

In these two Phase 2b studies, filgotinib (a selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to improve the signs and symptoms of RA (compared with placebo), either as monotherapy or when added to MTX. DARWIN 1 included 594 patients with moderate to severe RA on a stable dose of MTX, while DARWIN 2 included 283 patients who stopped taking MTX before the start of the study. After 12 weeks’ treatment, significantly more patients who were receiving filgotinib 100 mg or 200 mg daily in DARWIN 1 or any ...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Outcomes of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Cycling versus Switching to a Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatic Drug with a New Mechanism of Action Among Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Chastek B, Becker LK, Chen CI, Mahajan P and Curtis JR.
J Med Econ 2017;20:464–73

This retrospective study looked at claims-based datasets to establish whether it is preferable to switch to another TNF inhibitor (TNFi) or to a therapy with a different mechanism of action (MOA) when RA treatment failure occurs with an initial TNFi, due to inadequate response or lack of tolerability. Administrative claims data from a large US database were used to compare treatment patterns, treatment effectiveness (based on fulfillment of six criteria) and costs in in the 12 months after RA p...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Value

May 17

Estimated Medical Expenditure and Risk of Job Loss among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients undergoing Tofacitinib Treatment: Post Hoc Analyses of Two Randomized Clinical Trials

Rendas-Baum R, Kosinski M, Singh A, Mebus CA, Wilkinson BE and Wallenstein GV.
Rheumatology doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex087

The results of this post hoc analysis of two Phase 3 studies of tofacitinib (TOF) show that improvements in health-related quality of life related to TOF treatment are likely to translate into significant reductions in estimated medical expenditure and likelihood of current and future job loss. Data from 399 MTX inadequate responder (IR) patients from ORAL Step, and 716 TNF inhibitor (TNFi)-IR patients from ORAL Standard were included in this analysis. Patients were receiving 5 mg or 10 mg TOF...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Value

Discontinuation of Tofacitinib after achieving Low Disease Activity in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Multicentere, Observational Study

Kubo S, Yamaoka K, Amano K, Nagano S, Tohma S, Suematsu E, Nagasawa H, Iwata K and Tanaka Y.
Rheumatology. Doi 10.1093/rheumatology/kex068

This study showed that in patients who achieved low disease activity (LDA), it is possible to discontinue tofacitinib without flare in approximately one-third of patients. Patients from the tofacitinib Phase 3 programme and long-term extension study were enroled. Discontinuation was based on physician-patient decision making with informed consent. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who remained tofacitinib free at post-treatment Week 52. Of 64 patients treated with tofacitin...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib

March 17

A Phase IIb Study of ABT-494, a Selective JAK-1 Inhibitor, in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy

Kremer JM, Emery P, Camp HS, Friedman A, Wang L, Othman AA, Khan N, Pangan AL, Jungerwirth S and Keystone EC.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016;68:2867–77

The summary and accompanying slide deck have been developed in conjunction with the Genovese et al. study (Study 1) which examined ABT-494 in MTX-IR patients in order to compare and contrast the data. In these two Phase 2b studies, ABT-494 (a novel selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to be effective in patients with active RA who were non-responders to MTX or at least one TNF inhibitor. Patients with active RA who had an inadequate response to MTX (study 1) or were refractory to or intoleran...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy and Safety of ABT-494, a Selective JAK-1 Inhibitor, in a Phase IIb Study in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate

Genovese MC, Smolen JS, Weinblatt ME, Burmester GR, Meerwein S, Camp HS, Wang L, Othman AA, Khan N, Pangan AL and Jungerwirth S.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016;68:2857–66

The summary and accompanying slide deck have been developed in conjunction with the Kremer et al. study (Study 2) which examined ABT-494 in TNF-IR patients in order to compare and contrast the data. In these two Phase 2b studies, ABT-494 (a novel selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to be effective in patients with active RA who were non-responders to MTX or at least one TNF inhibitor. Patients with active RA who had an inadequate response to MTX (study 1) or were refractory to or intolerant ...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Translated by: JAK 1 |

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib in Older and Younger Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Curtis JR, Schulze-Koops H, Takiya L, Mebus CA, Terry KK, Biswas P and Jones TV.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2017 Jan 4

In this analysis of patients with moderate to severe RA treated with tofacitinib (TOF) in Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies, patients aged 65 years had similar efficacy and a numerically higher risk of SAEs and discontinuations due to AEs compared with younger patients. The Phase 3 population included patients from five trials (n=3111) of TOF 5 mg or 10 mg BID or placebo. The LTE population (n=4102) included patients from two studies who had participated in Phase 1, 2 or 3 TOF stud...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

February 17

Analysis of Haematological Changes in Tofacitinib-treated Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis across Phase 3 and Long-term Extension Studies

Schulze-Koops H, Strand V, Nduaka C, DeMasi R, Wallenstein G, Kwok K and Wang L.
Rheumatology 2017;56:46–57.

In this analysis examining haematological changes after tofacitinib (TOF) treatment in patients with RA from pooled Phase 3 and LTE studies, TOF decreased mean lymphocyte counts and slightly increased mean haemoglobin (Hb) levels. The Phase 3 population included patients from six trials (n=4271) of TOF 5- or 10 mg BID, placebo or active comparator up to 24 months. The LTE population (n=4858) included patients from two studies (of up to 84 months), who had participated in Phase 1, 2 or 3 TOF st...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Peficitinib, a JAK Inhibitor, in Combination with Limited Conventional Synthetic DMARDs in the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese MC, Greenwald M, Codding C, Zubrzycka-Sienkiewicz A, Kivitz AJ, Wang A, Shay K, Wang X, Garg JP, Cardiel MH.
Arthritis Rheumatol DOI 10.1002/art.40054. Accepted article.

In this Phase 2b study in patients with moderate to severe RA, once-daily peficitinib in combination with limited csDMARDs reduced the symptoms of RA, demonstrated a dose-dependent ACR20 response rate over 12 weeks, and showed acceptable tolerability. This 12-week study included patients who had an inadequate response or intolerance to csDMARDs (N=289). Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1:1 to peficitinib 25-, 50-, 100, 150 mg or matching placebo. Statistically significant differences in the AC...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Baricitinib in Patients with Inadequate Response or Intolerance to Conventional Synthetic DMARDs: Results from the RA-BUILD Study

Dougados M, van der Heijde D, Chen Y-C, Greenwald M, Drescher E, Liu J, Beattie S, Witt S, de la Torre I, Gaich C, Rooney T, Schlichting D, de Bono S, Emery P.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:88–95.

Baricitinib improved symptoms of RA in the RA-BUILD trial, a Phase 3 study of baricitinib in patients with moderately to severely active RA, refractory to or intolerant to csDMARDs. As well as providing a short-term (24 weeks) benefit, there appeared to be joint damage benefit, considered a marker of long-term disability. RA-BUILD was a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to receive once-daily doses of placebo (n=228) or bari...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

January 17

Effects of Baricitinib on Lipid, Apolipoprotein, and Lipoprotein Particle Profiles in a Phase 2b Study in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Kremer J, Genovese MC, Keystone E, Taylor PC, Zuckerman SH, Ruotolo G, Schlichting DE, Crotzer VL, Nantz E, Beattie SD and Macias WL.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2017. DOI 10.1002/art.40036.

In this analysis of the effect of baricitinib on changes in lipid profile, lipoprotein particle size and apolipoprotein content, increases in serum lipids were observed with HDL-C increases correlating with improved clinical outcomes. Eligible patients (N=301) met the inclusion criteria for the Phase 2b randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.1 Patients were assigned in a 2:1:1:1:1 ratio to once-daily doses of placebo or baricitinib 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg, respectively. Those receiving 2 m...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Evaluation of Real-World Experience with Tofacitinib Compared with Adalimumab, Etanercept, and Abatacept in RA Patients with 1 Previous Biologic DMARD: Data from a U.S. Administrative Claims Database

Harnett J, Gerber R, Gruben D, Koenig AS and Chen C.
J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2016 Dec;22(12):1457-1471.

Data were examined to compare patient characteristics, treatment patterns and costs in patients with RA receiving tofacitinib (TOF) or common bDMARDs (adalimumab [ADA], etanercept (ETN) or abatacept [ABA]) who had previously received a single bDMARD. This study analyses real-world data from two US claims databases between November 2012 and October 2014. Data were collected from a total of 1252 patients in the Truven Marketscan Commercial and Medicare Supplemental databases. Pre-index (12-month...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Value

December 16

Peficitinib, a JAK Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Rheumatoid Arthritis in Methotrexate-inadequate Responders

Kivitz AJ, Gutierrez-Ureña SR, Poiley J, Genovese MC, Kristy R, Shay K, Wang X, Garg JP, Zubrzycka-Sienkiewicz A.
Arthritis & Rheum 2016; ePub ahead of print

This Phase 2b study of peficitinib (ASP015K), an orally administered once-daily JAK inhibitor, plus MTX, demonstrated efficacy across multiple secondary endpoints with higher peficitinib doses. Peficitinib in combination with MTX was well tolerated with a safety profile that was consistent with previous studies. A high placebo response rate was seen in both Latin and North America, when patient data were stratified. This high placebo rate is problematic for the accurate interpretation of pefic...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy of VX-509 (decernotinib) in Combination with a Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drug in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical and MRI Findings

Genovese M, Yang F, Østergaard M and Kinnman N.
Ann Rheum Dis 2016;75:1979–83

This Phase 2b study of VX-509 (decernotinib), a selective JAK3 inhibitor, showed that VX-509 in combination with stable DMARD therapy was effective for improving synovitis and osteitis as assessed by MRI in patients who had an inadequate response to DMARD therapy. Patients were randomised to treatment groups receiving either placebo, VX-509 100 mg, 200 mg or 300 mg for 12 weeks. Minimum inclusion criteria included Grade ≥2 clinical synovitis in either the wrist or two metacarpophalangeal joi...

Keywords: JAK, Decernotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Baricitinib, Methotrexate, or Combination in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and no or Limited Prior Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Treatment

Fleischmann F, Schiff M, van der Heijde D, Ramos-Remus C, Spindler A, Stanislav M, Zerbini CAF, Gurbuz S, Dickson C, de Bono S, Schlichting D, Beattie S, Kuo W-L, Rooney T, Macias W, Takeuchi T.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016. DOI 10.1002/art.39953. Accepted article

In this 52-week study of patients receiving initial therapy for RA, baricitinib alone or in combination with MTX demonstrated superior efficacy compared with MTX alone. Patients naïve to csDMARD (no or <3 doses of MTX) or bDMARD were randomised 4:3:4 (N=588) to MTX QW, baricitinib 4 mg QD or baricitinib 4 mg QD + MTX QW. The primary endpoint assessment was noninferiority of baricitinib monotherapy to MTX based on ACR20 response at Week 24. Not only was the primary endpoint met, baricit...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

October 16

Tofacitinib in Combination with Conventional DMARDs in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: PROs from a Phase 3 Randomised Controlled Trial

Strand V, Kremer JM, Gruben D, Krishnaswami S, Zwillich SH, Wallenstein GV.
Arthritis Care Res 2016; Accepted article. DOI 10.1002/acr.23004

Further evidence is presented that treatment with tofacitinib improves patient-reported outcomes (PROs), in addition to improving underlying disease activity. Data were analysed from the Phase 3 ORAL Sync 12-month randomised controlled trial in adult patients with active RA and previous inadequate response to ≥1 conventional or biologic DMARD(s). Patients received (4:4:1:1) TOF 5mg or 10mg BID or Placebo advanced to 5 mg or 10 mg BID plus conventional DMARD(s). PROs assessed at Month 3 were...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, PRO

August 16

A Randomized Phase 2b Study of ABT-494, a Selective JAK Inhibitor in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate

Genovese M, Smolen J, Weinblatt M, Burmester G, Meerwein S, Camp H, Wang L, Othman A, Khan N, Pangan A, Jungerwirth S.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016; Accepted article DOI 10.1002/art-39808 [Epub 2016]

This dose-ranging study evaluated the efficacy of the novel, selective JAK1 inhibitor ABT-494 versus placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and inadequate response (IR) to MTX. In this 12-week, randomised, double-blind study (BALANCE II), the efficacy and safety of ABT-494 dosed at 3mg, 6 mg, 12 mg, 18 mg (all twice daily) and 24 mg (once daily) was assessed. Patients included had not received prior biologic therapy. Of the 299 patients included in the analysis, the proportions of pati...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

July 16

Switching from Adalimumab to Tofacitinib in the Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese, et al.
Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2016. DOI 10.1186/s13075-016-1049-3 [Epub ahead of print]

Results are reported from an analysis exploring the safety and efficacy of open-label tofacitinib (TOF) following blinded treatment with TOF or adalimumab (ADA) in patients with moderate to severe RA. The analysis included patients from ORAL Sequel, an open-label long-term extension study, which all patients entered following ORAL Standard (one of the studies in the TOF phase 3 program). Only those patients who had been randomized to ADA 40 mg Q2W + MTX or 10 mg TOF + MTX in ORAL Standard were...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World

Efficacy and safety of the oral Janus kinase inhibitor peficitinib (ASP015K) monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in Japan:�a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study

Takeuchi et al.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jun;75:1057-64. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208279. Epub 2015 Dec 15

Peficitinib (ASP015K) is a novel orally bioavailable JAK inhibitor in development for the treatment of RA. It inhibits JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and Tyk2 enzyme activities and has moderate selectivity or JAK3 inhibition. Here the authors report the findings of a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study evaluating efficacy, safety and dose response of peficitinib (25, 50, 100, or 150 mg) as once-daily oral monotherapy in Japanese patients with moderate to severe RA. The prim...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy and Safety of Baricitinib in Japanese Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Background Methotrexate Therapy: A 12-week, Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study

Tanaka Y, Emoto K, Cai Z, et al.
J Rheumatol. 2016;43(3):504–511.

Clinical trials have shown baricitinib once daily to be effective in patients with RA. However, this Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor has not been evaluated in a Japanese population. In this 12-week, placebo-controlled study, 145 Japanese patients were enrolled and received placebo, 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg or 8 mg oral baricitinib daily. Efficacy results were encouraging and consistent with earlier trials. Significantly more baricitinib patients achieved ACR20 response at Week 12 of treatment compa...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

May 16

Initial Experience with Tofacitinib in Clinical Practice: Treatment Patterns and Costs of Tofacitinib Administered as Monotherapy or in Combination with Conventional Synthetic DMARDs in 2 US Health Care Claims Databases

Harnett et al.
Clin Ther. 2016 Mar 28. doi: 10.1116/j.clinthera. 2016.03.038 [Epub ahead of print]

This study analyzes data from two US claims databases between November 2012 and June 2014. It was designed to build upon knowledge from tofacitinib Phase 3 clinical trials providing clinical insights from independent sources on treatment patterns and costs for tofacitinib. Data were collected from 337 patients in the Truven Marketscan (TM) and 118 patients in the Optum Clinformatics (OC) databases. In this early experience cohort for tofacitinib, approximately 75% of patients had previously re...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Value

Real-world Comparative Risks of Herpes Virus Infections in Tofacitinib and Biologic-treated Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Curtis et al.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Apr 25;0:1–5 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209131

Herpes Zoster (HZ) complications can cause considerable morbidity including debilitating pain syndromes. Clinical trials of tofacitinib have suggested it may increase the risk of HZ. Although unclear, the mechanism may involve reduced CD4 T-cell function and interference of interferon signalling. Following approval of tofacitinib in the US in 2012, real-world data from Medicare (2006–2013) and from the US longitudinal database, Marketscan, (2010–2014) were analysed. A total of 252...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Infections

Extended-release once-daily formulation of tofacitinib: evaluation of pharmacokinetics compared with immediate-release tofacitinib and impact of food

Lamba et al.
J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Mar 11. doi: 10.1002/jcph.734. [Epub ahead of print]

PK profile of TOF is rapid absorption and elimination with time to max concentration 0.5-1 hour and terminal half-life at 3 hours. It is currently approved for immediate release (IR) 5 mg BID, 10 mg total; however, decreasing the dosage to QD dosing may help increase compliance. This study performed in 24 healthy males compared the PK of XR and IR TOF under both single and multiple dose conditions and evaluated the effect of a high-fat meal on the PK of XR TOF. There were no clinically importa...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

Baricitinib in Patients with Refractory Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese et al.
N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 31;374(13):1243-52. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1507247

For patients who have an inadequate response or unacceptable side effects associated with biologic DMARDs, the options for treatment beyond conventional DMARDs are limited. This phase 3 trial of the JAK 1/2 inhibitor, baricitinib, studied its efficacy in bDMARD-IR patients. 527 patients were randomized to either baricitinib 2mg, 4mg or placebo for up to 24 weeks. At week 12 the primary endpoints were tested hierarchically to control type 1 error; these endpoints were ACR20, HAQ-DI score, DAS28...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

March 16

Tofacitinib or adalimumab versus placebo: patient-reported outcomes from a phase 3 study of active rheumatoid arthritis

Strand V, van Vollenhoven R, Bong Lee E et al.
Strand et al. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016 Feb 29. doi:pii: kev442. [Epub ahead of print]

RA not only affects the physical aspects of a patient’s health but also has an impact on the psychological well-being causing a significant disease burden. This paper reports on the patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from the ORAL Standard study. This study investigated tofacitinib 5mg BID, 10mg BID, adalimumab vs. placebo over 12 months with a primary endpoint at month 3. All treatment groups showed significant improvements over placebo in HAQ-DI, PtGA and Pain with LSM changes in baselin...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

January 16

Systematic review and meta-analysis of serious infections with tofacitinib and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials

Strand V, Ahadieh S, French J, Geier J, Krishnaswami S, Menon S, Checchio T, Tensfeldt TG, Hoffman E, Riese R, Boy M, Gomez-Reino JJ.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2015 Dec 15;17(1):362

Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. By modulating the signalling of cytokines that are integral to lymphocyte activation, proliferation, and function, tofacitinib may suppress multiple elements of immune response. A systematic literature search including all biologics and tofacitinib procured 66 RCTs and 22 LTEs that were included in a meta-analysis to provide estimated incidence rates, risk ratios, and risk differences of serious infection for each therapy. ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Infections

VX-509 (Decernotinib), an Oral Selective JAK-3 Inhibitor, in Combination With Methotrexate in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese MC, van Vollenhoven RF, Pacheco-Tena C, Zhang Y, Kinnman N.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Jan;68(1):46-55.

VX-509 (decernotinib) is a novel oral, selective inhibitor of JAK-3. JAK-3 is a member of the JAK signalling family that is primarily expressed in hematopoietic cells and associates with only the common γ-chain making it a promising therapeutic drug target. A phase IIb 24-week study of VX-509 in 358 patients with RA, who had prior inadequate response to MTX, uses ACR20 response rate and DAS28-CRP change at Week 12 to assess the efficacy of VX-509. Patients were administered either placebo+...

Keywords: JAK, Decernotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

December 15

Effects of tofacitinib monotherapy on patient-reported outcomes in a randomized phase 3 study of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate responses to DMARDs

Strand V, Kremer J, Wallenstein G, Kanik KS, Connell C, Gruben D, Zwillich SH, Fleischmann R.
Arthritis Research & Therapy (2015) 17:307 DOI: 10.1186/s13075-015-0825-9 [Epub ahead of print]

RA presents a significant health and socioeconomic burden particularly in physical functioning, fatigue, and emotional roles. A phase III 6-month study of tofacitinib in patients with active RA, who had prior inadequate responses to cDMARDs or bDMARDs, uses patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to assess the impact on quality of life. Patients were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID, or placebo for 3 months followed by tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. At month 3, tofacitinib 5 and ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

October 15

Tofacitinib regulates synovial inflammation in psoriatic arthritis, inhibiting STAT activation and induction of negative feedback inhibition

W Gao, T McGarry, C Orr, J McCormick, D J Veale, U Fearon.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2015 Sep 9. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-207201

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis (Ps) and characterised by synovitis and progressive destruction of articular cartilage and bone. Recently developed agents for PsA target IL12p40, IL-6 and IL-17, several of which signal through the JAK family of receptor-associated tyrosine kinases. Tofacitinib is a drug of the JAK inhibitor class and is currently approved for the treatment of RA in 27 countries. This study evaluated the effect of tofacitini...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Cost-effectiveness of Tofacitinib in the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis in South Korea

Min-Young Lee, Sun-Kyeong Park, Sun-Young Park, Ji-Hye Byun, Sang-Min Lee, Su-Kyoung Ko, and Eui-Kyung Lee.
Clinical Therapeutics. 2015:37(8). [Epub ahead of print]

This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of introducing tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, to the treatment of Korean patients with RA and an inadequate response to conventional DMARDs. The model showed that the inclusion of tofacitinib as a treatment strategy for moderate to severe RA is cost-effective; this conclusion was considered robust based on multiple sensitivity analyses. First-line tofacitinib used before the standard of care (base-case analysis) increased both treatment...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Value

Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib following inadequate response to conventional synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

Charles-Schoeman C, Burmester G, Nash P, Zerbini CA, Soma K, Kwok K, Hendrikx T, Bananis E, Fleischmann R.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2015 Aug 14. doi:pii: annrheumdis-2014-207178.

This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients with inadequate response to sDMARDs or bDMARDs. Findings from this study show both doses of tofacitinib were associated with improvements in efficacy parameters at month 3 versus placebo, and clinical response was numerically greater with bDMARD-naïve versus bDMARD-IR patients (95% CI overlapping). Safety parameters were generally similar; however, patients receiving glucocorticoids had ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

September 15

Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib as monotherapy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, randomized, phase 2 study

Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T, Yamanaka H, Nakamura H, Toyoizumi S, Zwillich S.
Modern Rheumatology. 2015 Jul;25(4):514-21. doi: 10.3109/14397595.2014.995875.

The oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, Tofacitinib, preferentially inhibits signalling by heterodimeric receptors associated with JAK3 and/or JAK1, blocking signalling for several cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tofacitinib monotherapy versus placebo in Japanese patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Data on response rates – ACR20/50/70, DAS28-4(ESR), and HAQ-DI – laboratory parameters and adverse eve...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

July 15

Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: results from two, randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trials

Papp KA, Menter MA, Abe M, Elewski B, Feldman SR, Gottlieb AB, Langley R, Luger T, Thaci D, Buonanno M, Gupta P, Proulx J, Lan S, Wolk R, OPT Pivotal 1 and OPT Pivotal 2 Investigators.
British Journal of Dermatology. 7 July 2015 DOI: 10.1111/bjd.14018. [Epub ahead of print]

The management of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis has benefited from the introduction of biological therapies, but unmet needs still remain, especially for oral therapies. Tofacitinib is an orally active agent that blocks signalling of key cytokines implicated in the immune response and inflammatory pathways of psoriasis. The Phase III studies presented in this paper analysed efficacy and safety endpoints. Both studies demonstrated that tofacitinib in both 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

May 15

Evaluation of the effect of tofacitinib on measured glomerular filtration rate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results from a randomised controlled trial

Kremer JM, Kivitz AJ, Simon-Campos JA, Nasonov EL, Tony HP, Lee SK, Vlahos B, Hammond C, Bukowski J, Li H, Schulman SL, Raber S, Zuckerman A, Isaacs JD.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2015 Apr 6;17(1):95.

Mean increases from baseline in patient serum creatinine (SCr) levels have been observed in the clinical development programme for the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib. These increases predominantly occurred within the first three months, and reversed with tofacitinib withdrawal. This phase 1, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 2-period study assessed changes in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) with tofacitinib, relative to placebo, in 148 patients with active RA. Results sh...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme

Curtis JR, Lee EB, Kaplan IV, Kwok K, Geier J, Benda B, Soma K, Wang L, Riese R.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Apr 22. pii: annrheumdis-2014-205847. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205847. [Epub ahead of print]

The developments of certain malignancies associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA is known to occur to a greater extent than that of the general population. It is also know that certain RA treatments can affect malignancy rates. As such, newer immunomodulatory agents, such as the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib, are closely monitored for safety events of special interest, including malignancies. This paper analyses pooled malignancy data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Malignancy

April 15

Super-enhancers delineate disease-associated regulatory nodes in T cells

Vahedi G, Kanno Y, Furumoto Y, Jiang K, Parker SC, Erdos MR, Davis SR, Roychoudhuri R, Restifo NP, Gadina M, Tang Z, Ruan Y, Collins FS, Sartorelli V, O'Shea JJ.
Nature. 2015 Feb 16. doi: 10.1038/nature14154. [Epub ahead of print]

Transcription machinery (proteins responsible for activating or ‘switching off’ genes) is not distributed in the genome in a symmetrical (or even) manner. Some parts of the genome, so called super-enhancers (SEs), accumulate an exceptionally high level of proteins relevant to the regulation of transcription (i.e. the machinery is concentrated in particular parts of the genome). In this paper, the investigators asked about the locale of these regions in the genome of T cells. Then th...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

Sarilumab plus methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to methotrexate: Results of a phase III study

Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Kivitz A et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. Vol. 67, No. 6, June 2015, pp 1424–1437

Biologic DMARDs targeting TNF-alpha, IL-1, T-cell co-stimulatory blockade, B-cell depletion, and IL-6R, as well as the newer JAK inhibitors have greatly improved clinical outcomes in RA. However, not all patients respond to current biologic or small molecule DMARDs. Sarilumab is a fully human anti-IL-6Rα mAb that binds membrane-bound and soluble human IL-6R with high affinity, blocking cis and trans IL-6-mediated signalling. This study (MOBILITY) is the first randomised, double-blind,...

Keywords: IL-6, Sarilumab, Clinical, Phase 3

The effect of tofacitinib on pneumococcal and influenza vaccine responses in rheumatoid arthritis

Winthrop KL, Silverfield J, Racewicz A, Neal J, Lee EB, Hrycaj P, Gomez-Reino J, Soma K, Mebus C, Wilkinson B, Hodge J, Fan H, Wang T, Bingham CO 3rd.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Mar 20. pii: annrheumdis-2014-207191. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-207191. [Epub ahead of print]

The increased risk of serious infection among RA patients means vaccinations against pneumococcus and influenza are recommended in this group of patients. Studies evaluating immune response to these vaccines in conjunction with DMARD therapy can provide clinicians with important information relating to things such as timing of vaccination. This study aimed to assess the effect of tofacitinib on vaccine responses to PPSV-23 and the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in those whom tofacitinib...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

March 15

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Twelve-Week, Dose-Ranging Study of Decernotinib, an Oral Selective JAK-3 Inhibitor, as Monotherapy in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Fleischmann RM, Damjanov NS, Kivitz AJ, et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67(2):334–343.

Decernotinib (VX-509; Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated) is a JAK 3 inhibitor currently under investigation for its potential use in the treatment of RA. The potency and selectivity profiles of this oral compound have already been established in previous trials, so this study aimed to establish the efficacy and safety profiles of the drug, in RA patients who have had an inadequate response to at least one DMARD. Four doses; 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg, were evaluated in this placebo-contr...

Keywords: JAK, Decernotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modeling of Filgotinib (GLPG0634), a Selective JAK1 Inhibitor, in Support of Phase IIB Dose Selection

Namour F, Diderichsen PM, Cox E, Vayssière B, Van der Aa A, Tasset C, Van't Klooster G.
Clin Pharmacokinet. 2015 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Filgotinib (GLPG0634) is a selective inhibitor of JAK1 currently in development for the treatment of RA and Crohn’s disease. This paper describes the pharmacokinetics of filgotinib and its active metabolite, as well as the PK/PD modelling to support dose selection for phase IIB. Two phase I, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in healthy volunteers and one phase IIa proof-of-concept study in RA patients were used to evaluate single and multiple doses of filgotinib. Resul...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

January 15

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib as Monotherapy in Japanese Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A 12-Week, Randomized, Phase 2 Study

Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T, Yamanaka H, Nakamura H, Toyoizumi S, Zwillich S.
Mod Rheumatol. 2014 Dec 11:1–25. [Epub ahead of print]

In Japan, the biologic DMARDs infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab pegol, as well as tocilizumab and abatacept are approved for use in patients with active RA and an inadequate response to existing therapies. However, not all patients respond to these therapies adequately, creating an unmet need for therapeutic options with alternative mechanisms of action. The oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib has demonstrated efficacy as monotherapy or in combination with DMARDs for th...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of baricitinib, an oral JAK 1/2 inhibitor, in healthy volunteers

Shi JG, Chen X, Lee F, Emm T, Scherle PA, Lo Y, Punwani N, Williams WV, Yeleswaram S.
Mod J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;54(12):1354-61. doi: 10.1002/jcph.354.

Current biologic therapies for RA, such as biologic cytokine inhibitors, which selectively target inflammatory molecules with an exquisite degree of specificity, are not clinically effective in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis. As such, there remains an unmet clinical need for more effective and better tolerated therapies. Baricitinib (LY3009104, also previously known as INCB028050) is a potent and selective small molecule inhibitor of JAK1/2, which play an important role in cytokine signa...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

December 14

Safety and efficacy of baricitinib at 24 weeks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to methotrexate

Keystone EC, Taylor PC, Drescher E, Schlichting DE, Beattie SD, Berclaz PY, Lee CH, Fidelus-Gort RK, Luchi ME, Rooney TP, Macias WL, Genovese MC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74(2):333–340

Recent innovations in the treatment of RA have focused on the use of small molecules to inhibit intracellular kinases such as the JAK family. Baricitinib (LY3009104, formerly INCB028050) is an orally administered, potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2, which has shown anti-inflammatory effects, as well as preservation of cartilage and bone, in preclinical rodent studies. This phase IIb study was designed to investigate multiple doses and dosing regimens of baricitinib, fo...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

The activity of JAK-STAT pathways in rheumatoid arthritis: constitutive activation of STAT3 correlates with interleukin 6 levels

Isomäki P, Junttila I, Vidqvist KL, Korpela M, Silvennoinen O.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Nov 17. pii: keu430. [Epub ahead of print]

Non-response, parenteral administration and cost to produce are all aspects associated with the currently available anti-cytokine agents for RA. These related factors mean that alternative drugs are now being developed. Recent developments in therapeutic drugs to treat RA have focused on Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) transcription pathways. Several cytokines that regulate immune responses in RA, such as IFN-g, IL-6 and IL-10, activate JAK-STAT ...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, MOA

The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses synovial JAK1-STAT signalling in rheumatoid arthritis

Boyle DL, Soma K, Hodge J, Kavanaugh A, Mandel D, Mease P, Shurmur R, Singhal AK, Wei N, Rosengren S, Kaplan I, Krishnaswami S, Luo Z, Bradley J, Firestein GS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Nov 14. pii: annrheumdis-2014-206028. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206028. [Epub ahead of print]

Targeting intracellular pathways such as JAK/STAT represents a novel approach to the treatment of RA. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor, proven to be effective in the treatment of RA, yet the pathways affected by tofacitinib and the effects on gene expression in situ are unknown. In this study, Boyle et al. tested the hypothesis that tofacitinib targets cytokine signalling critical to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid synovitis by investigating tofacitinib effects on synovial pathobiology. A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

October 14

Tofacitinib with methotrexate in third-line treatment of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: Patient-reported outcomes from a Phase 3 trial

Strand V, Burmester GR, Zerbini CA, Mebus CA, Zwillich SH, Gruben D, Wallenstein GV.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2014 Sep 3. doi: 10.1002/acr.22453. [Epub ahead of print]

For many patients with rheumatoid arthritis, improvements in pain, physical function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are more important and meaningful than improvements in joint swelling, tenderness, or inhibition of structural damage. These patient-perceived benefits of RA therapy contribute importantly to overall clinical efficacy. This paper presents patient-reported outcomes (PROs) form the ORAL Step trail, which assessed tofacitinib 5 mg or 10 mg twice daily, or pla...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, PRO

August 14

Changes in serum creatinine in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis treated with tofacitinib: results from clinical trials

Isaacs JD, Zuckerman A, Krishnaswami S, et al.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2014;16(4):R158

Despite preclinical and healthy volunteer studies of tofacitinib showing no evidence of nephrotoxicity, increases in mean serum creatinine levels have been observed in patients treated with the drug during the RA clinical development programme. This report explores the clinical significance of this change. Serum creatinine values and renal adverse event data were pooled from patients who received =1 dose of tofacitinib either with background DMARDs or as monotherapy in five Phase 3 studies a...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Analysis of Infections and All-Cause Mortality in Phase II, III and Long-Term Extension Studies of Tofacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Cohen S, Radominski SC, Gomez-Reino JJ, et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(11):2924–2937

This study pools data from the global tofacitinib RA development programme (phase II, phase III and long-term extension studies) to determine the rate of infections and all-cause mortality with tofacitinib treatment. In total, 4,789 patients within these studies received tofacitinib, at varying doses and with varying duration. The overall incidence rate of serious infections was 3.09 events/100 patient-years (95% CI 2.73–3.49), which was stable over time, with pneumonia and skin and s...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

July 14

Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Winthrop KL, Yamanaka H, Valdez H, et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014 Jun 18. [Epub ahead of print]

It is well established that patients with RA are at an increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ). What is less well known is whether some of the newer therapies available for treatment of RA increase this risk. Tofacitinib has been reported to be associated with an increased risk of HZ and this study quantifies that risk and reviews potential factors that represent an increased risk. Using data from the tofacitinib RA development programme; phase 2, 3, and long-term extension clinical trials, over 20...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Infections

Tofacitinib Versus Methotrexate In Rheumatoid Arthritis

Lee EB, Fleischmann R, Hall S, et al.
N Engl J Med. 2014;370(25):2377–2386.

ORAL Start is the latest trial to be reported in the tofacitinib clinical development programme. It compares the use of tofacitinib monotherapy to MTX monotherapy, in RA patients who have had either no or a sub-therapeutic dose of MTX in the past. Nine hundred and fifty eight patients received either tofacitinib (5 mg or 10 mg) twice daily, or methotrexate at a dose that was incrementally increased to 20 mg per week over 8 weeks. The co primary efficacy endpoints were ACR 70 response, and mean c...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 14

Mechanism of Activation of Protein Kinase JAK2 by the Growth Hormone Receptor

Brooks AJ, Dai W, O’Mara ML et al.
Science 344, 2014; doi: 10.1126/science.1249783

Class I cytokine receptors are key regulators of many processes within the body. The receptors use the JAK-STAT signalling pathway, the deregulation of which causes it to become an important pathway in oncogenesis. Despite this, the processes responsible for JAK2 activation by class I receptors remains elusive. Previous studies using growth hormone and its receptor have led to a model of receptor activation where hormone induced receptor dimerization resulted in close proximity of the receptor ...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, MOA

Structure of the pseudokinase-kinase domains from protein kinase TYK2 reveals a mechanism for Janus kinase (JAK) autoinhibition

Lupardus PJ, Ultsch M, Wallweber H et al.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 19. pii: 201401180. [Epub ahead of print]

The JAK family of kinases (JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and TYK2) are receptor-associated tyrosine kinases that act downstream of many cytokines and interferons. Recent studies have provided structural information about the kinase and pseudokinase domains of JAKs however the molecular mechanism by which JAK activity is regulated by the pseudokinase domain is poorly understood. This study builds on a recent finding that the N terminus of the JAK1 pseudokinase group may act as a switch for kinase activation ...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, MOA

Structural basis for the recognition of interferon-α receptor by tyrosine kinase 2

Wallweber HJA, Tam C, Franke Y et al.
Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014 May;21(5):443-8. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.2807. Epub 2014 Apr 6

Janus kinases, JAKs, are essential in the mediation of cytokine and interferon signalling whilst also being crucial to body processes such as immune function, hematopoeises, metabolism and cellular growth. However, it is not known is how the four members of the JAK family interact with and are activated by over 30 cytokine receptors with near perfect affinity and specificity. Currently, there are no crystal structures available for any JAK bound to a cytokine receptor. This study sought address...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

May 14

JAK2-STAT3 Blockade by AG490 Suppresses Autoimmune Arthritis in Mice via Reciprocal Regulation of Regulatory T cells and Th17 cells

Park JS, Lee J, Lim MA et al.
J Immunol 2014; 192:4417-4424

In this study, Park et al sought to investigate the effects of the JAK2 inhibitor, AG490 in RA. Using murine CIA models, both preventative and therapeutic models were investigated. In the preventative model, CIA mice treated with AG490 showed a significantly lower incidence rate of arthritis and arthritic scores when compared to mice injected with vehicle. In the therapeutic model, as in the preventative, AG490 treated mice exhibited less severe arthritis. Through further experiments, it was de...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, MOA

Safety and Efficacy of Tofacitinib, an Oral Janus Kinse Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, in Open-Label Longterm Extension Studies

Wollenhaupt J, SIlverfield J, Lee Eb et al.
J Rheumatol 2014;41;837-852

This study pooled data from two LTE studies involving patients who had previously participated in qualifying phase I, II and III studies. Data up to 60 months was included for safety aspects and efficacy data up to 48 months. However data for 10 mg BID and tofacitinib monotherapy was limited after 24 and 36 months respectively. Over the two studies, 4102 patients were treated for a total of 5963 patient years. Herpes zoster, both serious and non-serious, had a higher incidence rate in tofacitini...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Blocking the janus-activated kinase pathway reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced interlukin-18 bioactivity by caspase-1 inhibition

Marotte H, Tsou PS, Fedorova T et al.
Arthritis Research and Therapy 2014,16:R102

IL-18, a member of the IL-1 family, has been shown to play an important role in immune response and is involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The study objective was to examine the role of the JAK pathway in modulating TNFa-induced-IL18 bioactivity by reducing caspase-1 function. Caspase-1 is the protease that cleaves pro-IL-18 to IL-18, thereby activating it. In testing it was noted that by blocking the JAK pathway significantly decreased caspase-1 transcription, expression and activity showing th...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, MOA

April 14

Effects of Janus Kinase Inhibitor tofacitinib on circulating serum amyloid A and interlukin-6 during treatment for rheumatoid arthritis

Migita K, Izumi Y, Jiuchi Y et al.
Clinical and Experimental Immunology doi.10.1111/cei.12234

Tofacitinib is a JAK inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of RA in some parts of the world. In this paper, Migita et al tested the effects of tofacitinib on circulating serum amyloid A (SAA). SAA is a major acute-phase reactant in RA and studies have shown it may be a better marker for the assessment of inflammatory joint disease compared with C-reactive protein. SAA is induced by the binding of IL-6 and the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway, which is inhibited by tofacitinib. Results...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Hypoxia and STAT3 signalling interactions regulate pro-inflammatory pathways in rheumatoid arthritis

Gao W, McCormick J, Connolly M et al.
. ARD published online first 13 Feb 2014. Doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204105

Hypoxia is a key driving force in joint inflammation, however little is known about the effect it can have on JAK/STAT signalling in rheumatoid arthritis. Due to the development of JAK inhibitors as therapeutics it is important to understand any links there may be. Previous studies have shown that HIF1a, a protein associated with hypoxia, facilitates the binding of STAT3 to haptoglobin promoter in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. HIF1a also requires interaction of Notch signalling pathways with STAT3...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

March 14

Inhibition of TAK1 and/or JAK can rescue impaired chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in osteoarthritis-like conditions

Van Beuningen HM, de Vries-van Melle ML, Vitters El et al.
Tissue Engineering Part A doi:10/1089/ten.TEA.2013.0553

As it is nonvascularized and noninnervated, articular cartilage has a limited capacity to repair which presents a major clinical problem. In order to circumvent this inability to repair, stem cells can be placed into the joint or stimulated within the bone marrow. However, as the cartilage requiring repair is often in diseased joints, the factors involved in the disease state are potentially non-beneficial to the chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells. In this study van Beuningen et al. invest...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

February 14

The Pharmacokinetics, Metabolism, and Clearance Mechanisms of Tofacitinib, a Janus Kinase Inhibitor, in Humans

Dowty ME, Lin J, Ryder TF et al.
DMD doi:10.1124/dmd.113.054940

The PK of tofacitinib has previously been described in several papers covering a range of diseases. This current study was used to better understand the PK, metabolism and clearance mechanisms of tofacitinib in healthy human subjects. Six subjects took a single 50mg dose of 14C-tofacitinib orally and consequently had urine, faeces and plasma collected. These were assayed for radioactivity and profiled for metabolites. Tofacitinib was found to be rapidly absorbed, with peak plasma concentration...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

Effects of tofacitinib on lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to efficacy and infectious adverse events

Sonomoto K, Yamaoka K, Kubo S et al.
Rheumatology doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket466

Due to its function as a JAK1/3 inhibitor, tofacitinib has effects on a wide ranging variety of cells. The authors of this paper have previously reported a suppression in cytokine production by CD4+ T lymphocytes caused by tofacitinib, while others have reported reduced chemokine production from fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The effects of tofacitinib on other cells however remain largely unknown. This study focused on tofacitinib’s effects on CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation and on subsets...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

January 14

Selective inhibition of spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) with a novel orally bioavailable small molecule inhibitor, RO9021, impinges on various innate and adaptive immune responses: implication for SYK inhibitors in autoimmune disease therapy

Liao C, Hsu J, Kim Y et al.
Arthritis Research and Therapy 2013 15:R146

Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has already been described as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Previously the SYK inhibitor fostamatinib was in clinical development for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, but has since been suspended. However, investigation into SYK inhibition continues with RO2091, a novel ATP-competitive inhibitor of SYK with reasonable selectivity, potency and oral bioavailability which has been shown to suppress various innate and adap...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, Selectivity

Preclinical to Clinical Translation of Tofacitinib, a Janus Kinase Inhibitor, in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Dowty M, Jesson MI, Ghosh S, et al.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2013. DOI:10.1124/jpet.113.209304

Preclinical studies can provide insight into mechanisms of efficacy and optimal dosing regimens. In this study, Dowty et al. compare the pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamic profiles of tofacitinib in a murine arthritis model and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis from tofacitinib clinical trials. The main driver of efficacy in both preclinical murine arthritis models and clinical RA was found to be inhibition of JAK1 heterodimer signalling, where total drug exposure (Cave) was a predictor of pr...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

October 13

Preclinical characterization of GLPG0634, a selective inhibitor of JAK1, for the treatment of inflammatory diseases

Van Rompaey L, Galien R, van der Aar EM, et al.
Journal of Immunology 2013;191:3568–77

JAK inhibitors have been identified as having a critical role as therapeutic targets for autoimmune, inflammatory and oncological diseases. GLPG0634 was shown to inhibit JAK1/JAK2 but with a much greater effect on JAK1, a critical pathway in the signal transduction of many inflammatory cytokines. In rodent testing, GLPG0634 showed significant dose-dependent reduction in disease progression in collagen-induced arthritis models, with comparable efficacy to etanercept. An orally bioavailable treatm...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Preclinical

The JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib, reduces the t cell stimulatory capacity of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

Kubo S, Yamaoka K, Kondo M, et al.
Ann Rheum Dis 2013. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-203756

The role of JAKs is highly important in lymphocyte differentiation, but their function in dendritic cells in unknown. In this study, the authors used tofacitinib, a JAK inhibitor, to assess the function of these kinases in dendritic cell activity. The results show that tofacitinib reduced the expression of CD80/CD86 by suppressing the activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-7 and production of type 1 interferon (IFN), and also decreased T cell stimulatory capability. This suggests a nov...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Inhibition of JAK/STAT signalling pathway in rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts using small molecule compounds

Migita K, Izumi Y, Torigoshi T et al.
Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Aug 23. doi: 10.1111/cei.12190

Current JAK inhibitors CP-690,550 and INCB020850 have inhibitory effects on multiple JAK pathways, therefore Migita et al. tested whether selective inhibition of JAK3, using PF-956980, would be enough to ameliorate the rheumatoid inflammatory process. The results indicated that the inhibition of JAK3 alone is does not achieve control of STAT3-dependent signalling, and while it is suggested that the targeting of singular JAK pathways should lead to fewer adverse events, it appears that this appro...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, MOA

Tofacitinib in combination with nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

Kremer J, Li ZG, Hall S et al.
Ann Intern Med. 2013;159;253-261

Many patients with active RA have an inadequate response to biologic and nonbiologic DMARDs. Kremer et al carried out a one year, randomized trial studying the efficacy of tofacitinib in conjunction with background nonbiologic DMARDs (primarily methotrexate) in these patients. The results showed that using tofacitinib in combination with nonbiologic DMARDs rapidly improved physical function and reduced signs and symptoms of RA versus placebo, measured by ACR20 rates, DAS28 and HAQ-DI. The data f...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

August 13

The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib for active rheumatoid arthritis: results from phase III trials

Salgado E & Gomez-Reino JJ.
International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology June 2013; 8(3):311–13

The tofacitinib ORAL research program involves six phase 3 trials (Standard, Solo, Step, Scan, Sync and Start) to assess the safety and efficacy of tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily as monotherapy, or with either background MTX or traditional DMARD therapy. This report by Salgado et al. provides an overall analysis of the each of the study designs and the clinical results to date. The results show that tofacitinib effectively controlled the signs and symptoms of RA across a range of patient po...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 13

Selective inhibition of JAK1 and JAK2 is efficacious in rodent models of arthritis: preclinical characterization of INCB028050

Fridman JS, Scherle PA, Collins R, et al.
Journal of Immunology 2010; 184(9):5298-307

This preclinical characterisation study examined the efficacy and tolerability of the small molecule INCB028050 (now known as baricitinib), an orally bioavailable, selective Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor, in rodent models of arthritis. The decision to investigate its effects of INCB028050 followed positive evidence for the related compound ruxolitinib, the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib and the IL-6 inhibitor tocilizumab in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this preclinical study, INCB028050 was sh...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Preclinical, Selectivity

Modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses by tofacitinib (CP-690,550)

Ghoreschi K, Jesson MI, Li X, et al.
Journal of Immunology 2011; 186(7):4234-43

This study investigated the effects of the novel Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor CP-690,550 (now known as tofacitinib) on adaptive and innate immune responses, in order to establish the mode of action of JAK inhibitors in the setting of inflammatory diseases. The inhibition of specific JAK/STAT-dependent pathways by CP-690,550 was determined through analysis of cytokine stimulation of mouse and human T cells in vitro.The effects of CP-690,550 on Th-cell differentiation of naive...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

The JAK inhibitor CP-690,550 (tofacitinib) inhibits TNF-induced chemokine expression in fibroblast-like synoviocytes: autocrine role of type 1 interferon

Rosengren S, Corr M, Firestein GS, et al.
Annals of Rheumatic Diseases 2012; 71:440-47

This study investigated the effect of the novel Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor CP-690,550 [tofacitinib] in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) collected from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Human FLSs were cultured from the synovial tissue of patients with RA who were undergoing arthroplastic surgery, cultured and then serum-starved 48 hours prior to stimulation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or multiplex bead assay were used to...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

A phase IIb dose-ranging study of the oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (CP-690,550) versus placebo in combination with background methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate alone

Kremer JM, Cohen S, Wilkinson BE, et al.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 2012; 64(4):970-81

This study was one of two 24-week, phase 2b studies undertaken to characterise the efficacy and safety dose-response profile of the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. Six doses of tofacitinib (20 mg daily and 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 mg twice daily) and placebo were compared as add-on therapy in adults with active RA despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. At week 12, ACR 20 response rates were significantly higher with all tofacitinib doses than with placebo (tofacitinib 45.7–58.1%...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Placebo-controlled trial of tofacitinib monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis

Fleischmann R, Kremer J, Cush J, et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 367(6):495-507

This is the first phase 3 study to be published for the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. This study investigated tofacitinib as a monotherapy in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis who previously failed to respond to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The study demonstrated that tofacitinib, compared to placebo, was more likely to be associated with reductions in the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and improvement in physical function. 59.8% of patients...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Tofacitinib or adalimumab versus placebo in rheumatoid arthritis

van Vollenhoven RF, Fleischmann R, Cohen S, et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 367(6):508-19

The ORAL Standard trial is one of six studies conducted as part of the phase 3 research programme for the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. This 12-month, phase 3 study compared the efficacy of tofacitinib with the TNF inhibitor adalimumab or placebo. Patients with active RA despite background methotrexate (MTX) were randomised to 5 or 10 mg tofacitinib twice daily, 40 mg adalimumab fortnightly, or placebo, which was switched to tofacitinib at month 3 in non-responders and month 6 f...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in combination with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: a randomised phase 3 trial

Burmester GR, Blanco R, Charles-Schoeman C, et al.
The Lancet 2013; 381(9865):451-60

The ORAL Step trial is one of six studies conducted as part of the phase 3 research programme for the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. This 6-month, double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 study investigated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in adults with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. Patients were randomised to 5 or 10 mg tofacitinib twice daily or placebo, which was switched to tofaciti...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Open-label tofacitinib and double-blind atorvastatin in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomised study

McInnes IB, Ho-Youn K, Sang-Heon L, et al.
Annals of Rheumatic Diseases 2013; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202442

This randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin versus placebo in modifying lipids in 111 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving tofacitinib. All patients took tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for 12 weeks, and after the first 6 weeks patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg once daily (n=50) or matched placebo (n=48) in a double-blind phase for a further 6 weeks. Tofacitinib-induced elevatio...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving methotrexate: Twelve-month data from a twenty-four–month phase III randomized radiographic study

van der Heijde D, Tanaka Y, Fleischmann R, et al.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 2013; 65(3):559-70

The ORAL Scan trial is one of six studies conducted as part of the phase 3 research programme for the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. This is the 12-month interim results published for the ORAL Scan study, a 24-month, phase 3 study that compared the effects of tofacitinib and placebo on structural preservation in patients with active RA despite methotrexate therapy. Patients were randomised to 5 or 10 mg tofacitinib twice daily or placebo, which was switched to 5 or 10 mg tofaciti...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3