Cytokine Signalling Forum

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February 19

Tofacitinib in Combination with Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Efficacy, Radiographic and Safety Outcomes from the 24-Month Phase 3 ORAL Scan Study

van der Heijde D, Strand V, Tanaka Y, Keystone E, Kremer J, Zerbini CAF, Cardiel MH, Stanley Cohen S, Nash P, Song YW, Tegzová D, Gruben D, Wallenstein G, Connell CA, Fleischmann R, ORAL Scan investigators.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jun;71(6):878-891

RA patients receiving TOF 5 or 10 mg BID plus MTX showed sustained clinical and radiographic treatment effects through months 12-24. The safety profile was consistent with previous TOF studies. The 12-month data from the ORAL Scan study have been previously reported. This report assesses durability of responses, including structural damage progression, and safety with TOF through 24 months. Patients were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive TOF 5 or 10 mg BID, or PBO advanced to TOF with stable, ba...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

September 18

Lipid Profile and Effect of Statin Treatment in Pooled Phase II and Phase III Baricitinib Studies

Taylor PC, Kremer JM, Emery P, Zuckerman SH, Ruotolo G, Zhong J, Chen L, Witt S, Saifan C, Kurzawa M, Otvos JD, Connelly MA, Macias WL, Schlichting DE, Rooney TP, de Bono S, McInnes IB.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jul;77(7):988-995. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212461

Baricitinib (BARI) was associated with increased lipid levels; baseline statins did not alter these profiles. The introduction of statins during treatment reduced total cholesterol and LDL-C. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in RA patients has been shown to alter lipid levels and is associated with reduced atherogenic risk. Increases in lipid levels, specifically HDL-C and LDL-C, have been observed in Phase 2 BARI studies1. This study analysed data from seven randomised RA Phase 2/3 studies o...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Real World, Cardiovascular

Sustained Response Following Discontinuation of Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Subcutaneous Tocilizumab

Kremer JM, Rigby W, Singer NG, Birchwood C, Gill D, Reiss W, Pei J, Michalska M.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2018;70:1200–08 DOI 10.1002/art.40493

The COMP-ACT study showed patients achieving low disease activity (LDA) with tocilizumab (TCZ) plus methotrexate (MTX) can discontinue MTX, while maintaining disease control for up to 16 weeks. Previous studies have shown TCZ to be efficacious as a monotherapy or in combination with MTX in patients with RA1,2. Patients frequently discontinue taking DMARDs, such as MTX, due to intolerance or adverse events. COMP-ACT is a randomised, double-blind, 52-week study evaluating the sustained efficacy of...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

July 18

Safety and Efficacy of Upadacitinib in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory To Biologic Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (SELECT-BEYOND): a Double-Blind, Randomised Controlled Phase 3 Trial

Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Combe B, Hall S, Rubbert-Roth A, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Mohamed M-EF, Meerwein S, Pangan AL.
Lancet 2018;391:2513–24

Upadacitinib (UPA) extended release formulation was effective in treating patients with moderate-to-severe RA with an inadequate response to bDMARDs. Phase 2 study data has shown that UPA is an efficacious and safe treatment for active RA.1,2 SELECT-BEYOND was a double-blind, long-term extension, Phase 3 study to assess the efficacy of UPA in patients with RA who were bDMARD-IR. The first 12-weeks of SELECT-BEYOND were placebo-controlled, with a double-blind period followed by an ongoing double...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety and Efficacy of Upadacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (SELECT-NEXT): a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Trial

Burmester GR, Kremer JM, Van den Bosch F, Kivitz A, Bessette L, Li Y, Zhou Y, Othman AA, Pangan AL, Camp HS.
Lancet 2018;391:2503–12

Patients with moderate-to-severe active RA had significant improvements in clinical signs and symptoms with upadacitinib (UPA) compared with placebo. In Phase 2 studies, UPA showed favourable efficacy when administered twice daily as an immediate-release formulation at doses of 6–12 mg in patients with active RA who had TNFi-IR.1,2 An extended-release formulation allowing once-daily (QD) administration was developed for Phase 3 studies. SELECT-NEXT was a double-blind, multicentre, Phase 3...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

March 18

Response to Baricitinib based on Prior Biologic Use in Patients with Refractory Arthritis

Genovese MC, Kremer JM, Kartman CE, Schlichting DE, Xie L, Carmack T, Pantojas C, Burston JS, Tony HP, Macias WL, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018 May; 57(5):900-908

Baricitinib (BARI) 2 or 4 mg had a beneficial treatment effect on patients with moderate to severe RA compared with placebo (PBO), irrespective of the number or nature of prior patient bDMARD use. The current therapeutic target for patients with established RA is low disease activity, but many patients fail to achieve this due to inadequate responses to DMARD therapies. With this patient population growing, therapies for these patients are considered one of the greatest unmet needs in RA. This...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

October 17

Transaminase Levels and Hepatic Events During Tocilizumab Treatment: Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Clinical Trial Safety Data in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese MC, Kremer JM, van Vollenhoven RF, Alten R, Scali JJ, Kelman A, Dimonaco S, Brockwell L.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Sep;69(9):1751-1761. doi: 10.1002/art.40176

In this pooled analysis investigating liver enzyme abnormalities and hepatic adverse events (AEs) during long-term tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment for RA in clinical trials, although transaminase elevations were frequent, rates of hepatic serious AEs remained low. Data were pooled from patients who received ≥1 dose of IV TCZ with or without DMARDs in Phase 3 or 4 clinical trials, long-term extensions, and a pharmacology study. A total of 4171 patients were included in the all-exposure populati...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Safety

March 17

A Phase IIb Study of ABT-494, a Selective JAK-1 Inhibitor, in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy

Kremer JM, Emery P, Camp HS, Friedman A, Wang L, Othman AA, Khan N, Pangan AL, Jungerwirth S and Keystone EC.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016;68:2867–77

The summary and accompanying slide deck have been developed in conjunction with the Genovese et al. study (Study 1) which examined ABT-494 in MTX-IR patients in order to compare and contrast the data. In these two Phase 2b studies, ABT-494 (a novel selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to be effective in patients with active RA who were non-responders to MTX or at least one TNF inhibitor. Patients with active RA who had an inadequate response to MTX (study 1) or were refractory to or intoleran...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

January 17

Effects of Baricitinib on Lipid, Apolipoprotein, and Lipoprotein Particle Profiles in a Phase 2b Study in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Kremer J, Genovese MC, Keystone E, Taylor PC, Zuckerman SH, Ruotolo G, Schlichting DE, Crotzer VL, Nantz E, Beattie SD and Macias WL.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2017. DOI 10.1002/art.40036.

In this analysis of the effect of baricitinib on changes in lipid profile, lipoprotein particle size and apolipoprotein content, increases in serum lipids were observed with HDL-C increases correlating with improved clinical outcomes. Eligible patients (N=301) met the inclusion criteria for the Phase 2b randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.1 Patients were assigned in a 2:1:1:1:1 ratio to once-daily doses of placebo or baricitinib 1, 2, 4, or 8 mg, respectively. Those receiving 2 m...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

October 16

Tofacitinib in Combination with Conventional DMARDs in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: PROs from a Phase 3 Randomised Controlled Trial

Strand V, Kremer JM, Gruben D, Krishnaswami S, Zwillich SH, Wallenstein GV.
Arthritis Care Res 2016; Accepted article. DOI 10.1002/acr.23004

Further evidence is presented that treatment with tofacitinib improves patient-reported outcomes (PROs), in addition to improving underlying disease activity. Data were analysed from the Phase 3 ORAL Sync 12-month randomised controlled trial in adult patients with active RA and previous inadequate response to ≥1 conventional or biologic DMARD(s). Patients received (4:4:1:1) TOF 5mg or 10mg BID or Placebo advanced to 5 mg or 10 mg BID plus conventional DMARD(s). PROs assessed at Month 3 were...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, PRO

December 15

Effects of tofacitinib monotherapy on patient-reported outcomes in a randomized phase 3 study of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate responses to DMARDs

Strand V, Kremer J, Wallenstein G, Kanik KS, Connell C, Gruben D, Zwillich SH, Fleischmann R.
Arthritis Research & Therapy (2015) 17:307 DOI: 10.1186/s13075-015-0825-9 [Epub ahead of print]

RA presents a significant health and socioeconomic burden particularly in physical functioning, fatigue, and emotional roles. A phase III 6-month study of tofacitinib in patients with active RA, who had prior inadequate responses to cDMARDs or bDMARDs, uses patient-reported outcomes (PROs) to assess the impact on quality of life. Patients were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID, or placebo for 3 months followed by tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID. At month 3, tofacitinib 5 and ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

May 15

Evaluation of the effect of tofacitinib on measured glomerular filtration rate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results from a randomised controlled trial

Kremer JM, Kivitz AJ, Simon-Campos JA, Nasonov EL, Tony HP, Lee SK, Vlahos B, Hammond C, Bukowski J, Li H, Schulman SL, Raber S, Zuckerman A, Isaacs JD.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2015 Apr 6;17(1):95.

Mean increases from baseline in patient serum creatinine (SCr) levels have been observed in the clinical development programme for the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib. These increases predominantly occurred within the first three months, and reversed with tofacitinib withdrawal. This phase 1, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 2-period study assessed changes in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) with tofacitinib, relative to placebo, in 148 patients with active RA. Results sh...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

October 13

Tofacitinib in combination with nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis

Kremer J, Li ZG, Hall S et al.
Ann Intern Med. 2013;159;253-261

Many patients with active RA have an inadequate response to biologic and nonbiologic DMARDs. Kremer et al carried out a one year, randomized trial studying the efficacy of tofacitinib in conjunction with background nonbiologic DMARDs (primarily methotrexate) in these patients. The results showed that using tofacitinib in combination with nonbiologic DMARDs rapidly improved physical function and reduced signs and symptoms of RA versus placebo, measured by ACR20 rates, DAS28 and HAQ-DI. The data f...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 13

A phase IIb dose-ranging study of the oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (CP-690,550) versus placebo in combination with background methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate alone

Kremer JM, Cohen S, Wilkinson BE, et al.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 2012; 64(4):970-81

This study was one of two 24-week, phase 2b studies undertaken to characterise the efficacy and safety dose-response profile of the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. Six doses of tofacitinib (20 mg daily and 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 mg twice daily) and placebo were compared as add-on therapy in adults with active RA despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. At week 12, ACR 20 response rates were significantly higher with all tofacitinib doses than with placebo (tofacitinib 45.7–58.1%...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Placebo-controlled trial of tofacitinib monotherapy in rheumatoid arthritis

Fleischmann R, Kremer J, Cush J, et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 2012; 367(6):495-507

This is the first phase 3 study to be published for the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. This study investigated tofacitinib as a monotherapy in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis who previously failed to respond to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). The study demonstrated that tofacitinib, compared to placebo, was more likely to be associated with reductions in the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and improvement in physical function. 59.8% of patients...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3