Cytokine Signalling Forum

Publications





October 19

Risk Factors for Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Phase III and Long-Term Extension Studies of Tofacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Christina Charles-Schoeman, Ryan DeMasi, Hernan Valdez, Koshika Soma, Lie-Ju Hwang, Mary G Boy, Pinaki Biswas, Iain B McInnes.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019

Post hoc analyses of the six ORAL studies and two LTE’s suggested that after 24 weeks of TOF treatment, increases in HDL-c and decreases in the TC/HDL-c ratio appeared to be associated with reduced future MACE risk in RA patients. 52 MACE occurred in 4076 patients over 12873 patient-years of exposure. Separate Cox regression models were used to evaluate traditional CV risk factors’ association with time to first MACE at baseline and changes in lipid levels with time to future MACE ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Cardiovascular

Changes in Lipid Levels and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events Following Tofacitinib Treatment in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis: A Pooled Analysis Across Phase 3 and Long-Term Extension Studies

Gladman DD, Charles-Schoeman C, McInnes IB, Veale DJ, Thiers B, Nurmohamed M, Graham D, Wang C, Jones T, Wolk R, DeMasi R.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019;71(10):1387–95

Serum lipid level increases at month 3 following TOF treatment in PsA were consistent with observation in RA and psoriasis. The risk of CV disease is higher in people with PsA versus the general population – comparable with the well-documented rates seen in RA and diabetes. The reasons for this are not fully elucidated, but it has been suggested that there is an association between peripheral joint inflammation and lipid dysregulation in PsA. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

September 19

Comparison of Baricitinib, Upadacitinib, and Tofacitinib Mediated Regulation of Cytokine Signalling in Human Leukocyte Subpopulations

McInnes IB, Byers NL, Higgs RE, Lee J, Macias WL, Na S, Ortmann RA, Rocha G, Rooney TP, Wehrman T, Zhang X, Zuckerman SH, Taylor PC.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Aug 2;21(1):183

Different JAKinibs modulated distinct cytokine pathways to varying degrees, and no agent potently or continuously inhibited an individual cytokine signalling pathway throughout the dosing interval. This study aimed to compare the in vitro cellular pharmacology of BARI, TOF and UPA across relevant leukocyte subpopulations, coupled with their in vivo PK, to determine their effects on distinct cytokine pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were incubated with differen...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Preclinical, Selectivity

August 19

Efficacy and Safety of Peficitinib (ASP015K) in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate: Results of a Phase III Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial (RAJ4) in Japan

Takeuchi T, Tanaka Y, Tanaka S, Kawakami A, Iwasaki M, Katayama K, Rokuda M, Izutsu H, Ushijima S, Kaneko Y, Shiomi T, Yamada E, van der Heijde D.
Ann Rheum Dis 2019 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215164

Peficitinib (PEF) 100 and 150 mg demonstrated robust clinical and structural efficacy in patients with RA who have an inadequate response to MTX. In Japan, two JAK inhibitors, TOF and BARI are currently available for RA patients with an inadequate response to conventional therapies. This randomized phase 3 study (RAJ4), assessed the efficacy and safety of two PEF doses in combination with MTX compared to PBO, in Japanese MTX-IR. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to PBO, PEF 100 mg and 150 mg with...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Effect of Filgotinib vs Placebo on Clinical Response in Patients with Moderate to Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory to Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Therapy: The FINCH 2 Randomized Clinical Trial

Genovese MC, Kalunian K, Gottenberg JE, Mozaffarian N, �Bartok B, Matzkies F, Gao J, Guo Y, Tasset C, Sundy JS, de Vlam K, Walker D, Takeuchi T.
JAMA 2019 322(4):315-325

Among RA patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to bDMARDs, filgotinib (FIL) doses, compared to PBO resulted in significantly greater proportions achieving a clinical response at Wk12. Patients with active RA despite treatment with bDMARD therapy need treatment options. The FINCH 2 Phase 3 study compared the effects of FIL vs PBO for the treatment of RA patients with inadequate response or intolerance to ≥1 prior bDMARDs. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio, receiving FI...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Upadacitinib versus Placebo or Adalimumab in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate: Results of a Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

Fleischmann R, Pangan AL, Song IH, Mysler E, Bessette L, Peterfy C, Durez P, Ostor AJ, Li Y, Zhou Y, Othman AA, Genovese MC.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 DOI: 10.1002/art.41032

UPA demonstrated superiority to ADA in terms of clinical, functional and patient-reported outcomes with comparable radiographic inhibition. As many RA patients fail to achieve LDA and remission with TNF inhibitors and MTX there is a requirement for additional treatment options. In this SELECT-COMPARE study the clinical and functional outcomes of UPA were compared to ADA in MTX-IR patients. 1629 MTX-IR were randomly assigned 2:2:1 to; UPA 15mg QD, ADA 40mg Q2W or PBO, with background MTX. Key e...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Safety and Effectiveness of Upadacitinib or Adalimumab Plus Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Over 48 Weeks with Switch to Alternate Therapy in Patients with Insufficient Response

Fleischmann RM, Genovese MC,  Enejosa JV,  Mysler E, Bessette L, Peterfy C,  Ostor P,  Li Y,  Song I.
Ann Rheum Dis 2019 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215764

Consistent with Wk26 data, significantly more UPA patients achieved LDA and remission versus ADA and PBO over 48 weeks. RA patients often change therapy due to inadequate response and intolerance. The SELECT COMPARE study was designed to explore switching to JAK inhibitors from TNF inhibitors without a wash-out period (and vice versa). The long-term safety and efficacy of UPA was compared to ADA and PBO in MTX-IR. 1629 patients were blindly assigned 2:2:1 to; UPA 15mg QD, ADA 40mg Q2W and PBO, ...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

July 19

Live Zoster Vaccine in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Tofacitinib with or without Methotrexate, or Adalimumab with Methotrexate

Calabrese LH, Abud-Mendoza C, Lindsey SM, Lee SH, Tatulych S, Takiya L, Iikuni N, Soma K, Luo Z, Fleischmann R.
Arthritis Care and Research 2019 DOI: 10.1002/acr.24010

Live zoster vaccine (LZV) was well tolerated, and herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates were generally similar between treatment groups in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated patients in a subset of RA who received LZV before TOF ± MTX, or ADA + MTX, in ORAL Strategy. It is known that patient with RA are at increased risk of developing HZ though the mechanisms behind this are currently not well understood though therapies, such as TOF, are thought to increase the risk. ACR and EULAR recommend...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Clinical Outcomes in Patients Switched from Adalimumab to Baricitinib Due to Non-Response and/or Study Design: Phase III Data in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Tanaka Y, Fautrel B, Keystone EC, Ortmann RA, Xie L, Zhu B, Issa M, Patel H, Gaich CL, de Bono S, Rooney TP, Taylor PC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Jul;78(7):890-898.

Switching from ADA to BARI without a lengthy washout period can be executed with acceptable safety and tolerability and was associated with maintained disease control. Switching therapies in RA is commonplace in myriad scenarios including inadequate responses, intolerances and patient preference. Assessing the safety and efficacy of new treatments such as BARI, in the context of use as a replacement therapy, is beneficial. A previous study (RA-BEACON) has demonstrated that safely switching fro...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 19

Impact of Janus Kinase Inhibitors on Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials

Xie W, Huang Y, Xiao S, Sun X, Fan Y, Zhang Z.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Aug;78(8):1048-1054.

Existing evidence from RCTs indicated no significant change in CV risk for JAK inhibitor (JAKinib) treated RA patients in a short-term perspective compared to placebo. Patients with RA have an elevated risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors. Reaching remission or LDA in order to reduce CV events (CVE) is encouraged in the current EULAR recommendations. JAKinibs and their roles in the modulation of CV risk remain undetermined. This stud...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Upadacitinib as Monotherapy in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Methotrexate (SELECT-MONOTHERAPY): A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Phase 3 Study

Smolen JS, Pangan AL, Emery P, Rigby W, Tanaka Y, Vargas JI, Zhang Y, Damjanov N, Friedman A, Othman AA, Camp HS, Cohen S.
Lancet. 2019 Jun 8;393(10188):2303-2311

UPA monotherapy showed statistically significant improvements in clinical and functional outcomes versus continuing MTX in MTX inadequate-responder patients with RA. Despite its proven effectiveness and safety, many patients are unable to tolerate MTX due to its side-effects. Therapies that can be used without concomitant MTX therefore, have an important place in RA management. In previous studies, UPA has shown efficacy in combination with stable background csDMARDs in RA patients who are DMA...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

May 19

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Infection Risk with Small Molecule JAK Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Bechman K, Subesinghe S, Norton S, Atzeni F, Galli M, Cope AP, Winthrop KL, Galloway JB.
Rheumatology (Oxford). DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez087

How JAKinibs increase the risk of HZ reactivation is unclear. Roles of different JAKs in the immune response may suggest differences in safety profiles between drugs, underpinned by their differential JAK selectivity profiles. The authors undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate SI and opportunistic indicator infections including HZ in RA Phase II/III clinic trials with JAKinibs. A literature review of RCT of TOF (5 mg BID), BARI (4 mg OD) and UPA (15 mg OD) was conducted. A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Safety and Efficacy of Tofacitinib For Up to 9.5 Years in The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Final Results of a Global, Open-Label, Long-Term Extension Study

Wollenhaupt J, Lee EB, Curtis JR, Silverfield J, Terry K, Soma K, Mojcik C, DeMasi R, Strengholt S, Kwok K, Lazariciu I, Wang L, Cohen S.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Apr 5;21(1):89.

TOF 5 mg and 10mg BID demonstrated a consistent safety profile and sustained efficacy for up to 9.5 years in this open-label LTE ORAL Sequel study. TOF 5 mg and 10 mg BID demonstrated consistent safety (as monotherapy and combination therapy) and efficacy within this open-label LTE study of RA patients. As RA requires long-term treatment, it’s important to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of RA therapies to understand the potential lifelong impact on patient health and quality of ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Evaluation of Pneumococcal and Tetanus Vaccine Responses in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Baricitinib: Results from a Long-Term Extension Trial Substudy

Winthrop KL, Bingham CO III, Komocsar WJ, Bradley J, Issa M, Klar R, Kartman CE.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Apr 18;21(1):102

Approximately two thirds of long-term BARI treated patients achieved satisfactory humoral and functional responses to 13-serotype pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13), whereas tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTV) responses were less robust. Both RA management guidelines and recommendations suggest vaccinating patients with RA against pneumococcal disease with PCV-13 and PPSV-23. The inhibition of the JAK mediated signal transduction pathways in RA treatment could diminish vaccine responses. Given t...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

April 19

Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B and Herpes Zoster in Tofacitinib-Treated Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Zhang Z, Deng W, Wu Q, Sun L.
Immunotherapy. 2019 Mar;11(4):321-333.

The risk of TB and hepatitis B virus (HBV) appears to be no greater with TOF than with bDMARDs. Most cases of TB during TOF studies occurred in regions with high background rate of TB, including east Asian countries. TOF is also associated with a higher rate of herpes zoster (HZ) compared with bDMARDs. DMARDs used to treat RA can increase the risk of infections by causing a degree of immunosuppression. A range of bacterial and viral infections have been observed in association with DMARD thera...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Efficacy and Safety Data Based on Historical or Pre-Existing Conditions at Baseline for Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Who Were Treated with Baricitinib

Combe B, Balsa A, Sarzi-Puttini P, Tony HP, de la Torre I, Rogai V, Durand F, Witt S, Zhong J, Dougados M.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Aug;78(8):1135-1138.

In a post-hoc analysis, BARI 4 mg showed similar efficacy and safety during placebo-controlled and LTE observation periods regardless of the presence or absence of select comorbidities in RA patients. Patients with RA have a high prevalence of comorbidities. This post-hoc analysis investigated the effect of select comorbidities (depression, osteoporosis, hepatic, cardiovascular or pulmonary disorders) on the efficacy and safety of BARI 4 mg QD in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA and i...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

March 19

Safety Profile of Baricitinib in Japanese Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis with Over 1.6 Years Median Time in Treatment: An Integrated Analysis of Phase 2 and 3 Trials

Harigai M, Takeuchi T, Smolen JS, Winthrop KL, Nishikawa A, Rooney TP, Saifan CG, Issa M, Isaka Y, Akashi N, Ishii T, Tanaka Y.
Mod Rheumatol. 2019 Feb 20:1-23. DOI: 10.1080/14397595.2019.1583711

In this integrated analysis, BARI showed an acceptable safety profile in Japanese patients with up to 3.2 years of exposure. Other than incidences of herpes zoster (HZ), no major differences were noted with BARI safety in Japanese patients with RA, compared to the patients in the integrated database. BARI has previously demonstrated significant clinical efficacy and acceptable safety. Japanese patients who participated in the BARI clinical development programme, were comparable to those from th...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Baricitinib Induces LDL-C and HDL-C Increases in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Qiu C, Zhao X, She L, Shi Z, Deng Z, Tan L, Tu X, Jiang S, Tang B.
Lipids Health Dis. 2019 Feb 18;18(1):54.

This study confirmed that BARI induced a stable dose-dependent increase in LDL-C and HDL-C levels. There was no significant difference of CV risk between BARI and placebo groups. High risk of CV events is strongly associated with RA. Mechanisms underlying the excess risk of CV events in RA remains unclear. This study aims to provide additional insight into the clinical safety of BARI, focusing on the effects of BARI on LDL-C and HDL-C levels and CV risk. A Cochrane analysis was performed on s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

February 19

Comparisons of Hepatitis C Viral Replication in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Tocilizumab, Abatacept and Tofacitinib Therapy

Chen YM, Huang WN, Liao TL, Chen JP, Yang SS, Chen HH, Hsieh TY, Hung WT, Chen YH, Chen DY.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Jun;78(6):849-850.

Tocilizumab (TCZ), abatacept (ABA) and tofacitinib (TOF) appear to have no major safety concerns for treatment of RA patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. HCV is an infectious disease which continues to present a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians in treating patients with RA. Previous reports demonstrate that the use of TNF targeted therapies in RA patients with HCV infections appear to have no major safety concerns. During short-term therapy with TCZ and ABA, data has show...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Tofacitinib in Combination with Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Efficacy, Radiographic and Safety Outcomes from the 24-Month Phase 3 ORAL Scan Study

van der Heijde D, Strand V, Tanaka Y, Keystone E, Kremer J, Zerbini CAF, Cardiel MH, Stanley Cohen S, Nash P, Song YW, Tegzová D, Gruben D, Wallenstein G, Connell CA, Fleischmann R, ORAL Scan investigators.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jun;71(6):878-891

RA patients receiving TOF 5 or 10 mg BID plus MTX showed sustained clinical and radiographic treatment effects through months 12-24. The safety profile was consistent with previous TOF studies. The 12-month data from the ORAL Scan study have been previously reported. This report assesses durability of responses, including structural damage progression, and safety with TOF through 24 months. Patients were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive TOF 5 or 10 mg BID, or PBO advanced to TOF with stable, ba...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Cardiovascular Safety During Treatment with Baricitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Taylor PC, Weinblatt ME, Burmester GR, Rooney TP, Witt S, Walls CD, Issa M, Salinas CA, Saifan C, Zhang X, Cardoso A, González-Gay MA, Takeuchi T.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jul;71(7):1042-1055.

This study indicates no association between exposure to BARI and MACE, arterial thrombotic events (ATE), or congestive heart failure (CHF). Overall IRs for venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in BARI-treated patients falls within the reported range for patients with RA. RA patients have a greater risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases of arterial ischemic origin, and an increased risk of VTE. Studied frequencies of thromboembolic events in RA populations in the last decade has been reported as 2&nd...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

January 19

A Pooled analysis of the Safety of Tofacitinib as Monotherapy or in Combination with Background Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs in a Phase 3 Rheumatoid Arthritis Population

Kivitz AJ, Cohen S, Keystone E, van Vollenhoven RF, Haraoui B, Kaine J, Fan H, Connell CA, Bananis E, Takiya L, Fleischmann R.
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Dec;48(3):406-415. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.07.006.

In this pooled analysis of Phase 3 Tofacitinib (TOF) trials, safety profiles were generally similar between patients receiving monotherapy and combination therapy. Although selected adverse events of interest showed lower incidence rates (IRs) for TOF monotherapy patients. TOF has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with csDMARDs. In this post-hoc analysis, data were pooled from six Phase 3 TOF studies in RA patients to further examine the safety profile when used as monotherapy or i...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Characterization and Changes of Lymphocyte Subsets in Baricitinib-Treated Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Integrated Analysis.

Tanaka Y, McInnes IB, Taylor PC, Byers NL, Chen L, de Bono S, Issa M, Macias WL, Rogai V, Rooney TP, Schlichting DE, Zuckerman SH, Emery P.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Dec;70(12):1923-1932. doi: 10.1002/art.40680

This review shows that changes in lymphocyte subsets were largely within normal reference ranges and were not associated with efficacy or safety end points. BARI is a selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of moderate to severe RA. BARI treatment is associated with changes to circulating lymphocyte and lymphocyte subsets, however detailed analyses of these effects, and their relevance to efficacy and safety is lacking. This study investigated the changes in lymphocyte cell s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Comparative Risk of Venous Thromboembolism with Tofacitinib versus Tumour Necrosis Factor Inhibitor: A Cohort study of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Desai RJ, Pawar A, Weinblatt ME, Kim SC.
Desai RJ, et al. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 June;71(6):892-900.

Occurrences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 50, 865 RA patients initiating Tofacitinib (TOF) or a TNF inhibitor (TNFi) was infrequent. No significant risk of VTE for TOF versus TNFi was observed. Safety concerns of JAK inhibitor BARI include potentially increased risk of VTE at the higher 4 mg dose. It’s unclear if this is attributable to JAK-inhibition and extends to TOF. This study compared the risk of VTE with TOF, versus TNFi in real-world settings with RA patients. RA patients in...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

December 18

Evaluation of the Short-, Mid-, and Long-term Effects of Tofacitinib on Lymphocytes in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

van Vollenhoven R, Lee EB, Strengholt S, Mojcik C, Valdez H, Krishnaswami S, Biswas P, Lazariciu I, Hazra A, Clark JD, Hodge J, Wang L, Choy E.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 DOI: 10. 1002/art.40780

Tofacitinib (TOF) treatment is associated with short-term transient increases in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), followed by a gradual decline to reach steady state by ~48 months. Changes in both ALC and lymphocyte subset counts (LSC) were reversible upon TOF discontinuation. Low ALC but not LSC were associated with an increased risk of serious infective episodes (SIEs) and herpes zoster (HZ). This data supported the treatment recommendations on ALC counts for starting and continuing therapy w...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

November 18

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib in Patients Receiving Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs or Corticosteroids

van Vollenhoven R, Helt C, Arora V, Zhong J, Correia AP, de la Torre I, Muram D.
Rheumatol Ther 2018 Dec;5(2):525-536. DOI 10.1007/s40744-018-0128-0

Baricitinib (BARI) in combination with MTX and concomitant csDMARDs was shown to be efficacious, regardless of corticosteroid use in RA patients. MTX is prescribed to most RA patients but concomitant csDMARDs and/or corticosteroids can be added. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of BARI in two arms; with/without corticosteroids and; with MTX only/MTX plus csDMARD/csDMARDs only. Baseline characteristics and adverse reactions were also compared. Data were pooled from two phase 3 studie...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Herpes zoster in Tofacitinib: Risk is Further Increased with Glucocorticoids but not Methotrexate

Curtis JR, Xie F, Yang S, Bernatsky S, Chen L, Yun H, Winthrop K.
Arthritis Care Res 2018 DOI 10.1002/acr.23769

The rate of Herpes Zoster (HZ) in tofacitinib (TOF) users with concomitant glucocorticoids (GC) was approximately double that of other TOF combination therapies. TOF is an effective treatment for RA. Increased HZ risk has been observed with the use of JAK inhibitors, whereas the HZ risk with biologics and targeted RA therapies are comparable. This study evaluated the HZ risk in TOF users according to concomitant GC, MTX, both, or neither. MarketScan and Medicare data were used to identify 8030 ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Ankylosing Spondylitis (TORTUGA): Results from a Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial

Van der Heijde D, Baraliakos X, Gensler LS, Maksymowych WP, Tseluyko V, Nadashkevich O, Abi-Saab W, Tasset C, Meuleners L, Besuyen R, Hendrikx T, Mozafarian N, Liu K, Greer JM, Deodhar A, Landewé R.
Lancet 2018 Dec 1;392(10162):2378-2387. DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32463-2

In this first clinical trial of filgotinib in patients with active AS, filgotinib significantly reduced disease activity, and the signs and symptoms of AS compared with placebo. The TORTUGA trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial, that enrolled 263 adult patients from 30 sites in seven countries. Patients with active AS and an inadequate response or intolerance to two or more NSAIDs were assigned 1:1 to receive filgotinib 200 mg or placebo once daily for 12 week...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Psoriatic Arthritis (EQUATOR): Results from a Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial

Mease P, Coates LC, Helliwell PS, Stanislavchuk M, Rychlewska-Hanczewska A, Dudek A, Abi-Saab W, Tasset C, Meuleners L, Harrison P, Besuyen R, Van der Aa A, Mozafarian N, Greer JM, Kunder R, Van den Bosch F, Gladman DD.
Lancet. 2018 Dec 1;392(10162):2367-2377. DOI 10.1016/ S0140-6736(18)32483-8

In this first clinical trial of filgotinib in patients with PsA, filgotinib was effective in treating the signs and symptoms of active PsA across various disease manifestations. The EQUATOR trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial, that enrolled 191 adult patients from 25 sites in seven countries. Patients with active moderate-to-severe PsA and an insufficient response or intolerance to at least one csDMARD were assigned 1:1 to receive filgotinib 200 mg or placebo...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

October 18

A Network Meta-Analysis Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib and Baricitinib

Bae SC and Lee YH.
Z Rheumatol. 2018 Sep 6. DOI 10.1007/s00393-018-0531-5

Tofacitinib (TOF) 10mg and baricitinib (BARI) 4mg, in combination with methotrexate (MTX), were the most efficacious treatments in RA patients with an inadequate response to DMARDs or biologics. Both combination treatments presented acceptable safety profiles and were not associated with a significant risk of serious adverse events. This study employed a Bayesian approach to Meta-Analysis; combining the available evidence across a network of Randomised Controlled trials (RCTs). Twelve RCTs cont...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Dose Reduction of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Achieving Sustained Disease Control: Results of a Prospective Study

Takeuchi T, Genovese MC, Haraoui B, Li Z, Xie L, Klar R, Pinto Correia A, Otawa S, Lopez-Romero P, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Feb;78(2):171-178. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213271

In active RA patients, with an inadequate response (IR) to DMARDs who achieve low disease activity (LDA) following baricitinib (BARI) 4 mg treatment, disease control is better maintained with continued BARI 4 mg compared to tapering to 2 mg. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of BARI tapering in patients achieving sustained disease control with BARI 4 mg. In the long-term extension study RA-BEYOND, patients receiving BARI 4 mg who achieved sustained LDA or remission at two...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety Profile of Baricitinib in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis with over 2 Years Median Time in Treatment

Smolen J, Genovese M, Takeuchi T, Hyslop D, Macias W, Rooney T, Chen L, Dickson C, Riddle Camp J, Cardillo T, Ishii T and Winthrop K.
J Rheumatol. 2019 Jan;46(1):7-18. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.171361

Baricitinib (BARI) showed an acceptable 5.5-year safety profile in this integrated analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe, active RA. This study evaluated the safety profile of the oral, once daily Janus kinase inhibitor, BARI, in adults with moderately to severely active RA. Data from eight randomised clinical trials and one long-term extension study were pooled and analysed for placebo comparison and dose response. There were 3492 patients who received BARI for a total of 6637 patient-y...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

September 18

Structural Damage Progression in Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Methotrexate, Baricitinib, or Baricitinib plus Methotrexate Based on Clinical Response in the Phase 3 RA-BEGIN Study

van der Heijde D, Durez P, Schett G, Naredo E, Østergaard M, Meszros G, De Leonardis F, De La Torre I, López-Romero P, Schlichting D, Nantz E, Fleichmann R.
Clinical Rheumatology 2018;37:2381–90 DOI 10.1007/s10067-018-4221-0

Patients with active RA and little or no prior DMARD treatment, who achieved sustained clinical responses, were less likely to show structural damage progression, irrespective of treatment. RA-BEGIN was a 52-week double-blind, multicentre Phase 3 trial, which assessed the safety and efficacy of BARI as monotherapy or in combination with MTX versus MTX monotherapy, in RA patients with no or limited prior DMARDs use.1-4 This post-hoc analysis evaluated the structural damage progression in patients...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Sustained Response Following Discontinuation of Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated with Subcutaneous Tocilizumab

Kremer JM, Rigby W, Singer NG, Birchwood C, Gill D, Reiss W, Pei J, Michalska M.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2018;70:1200–08 DOI 10.1002/art.40493

The COMP-ACT study showed patients achieving low disease activity (LDA) with tocilizumab (TCZ) plus methotrexate (MTX) can discontinue MTX, while maintaining disease control for up to 16 weeks. Previous studies have shown TCZ to be efficacious as a monotherapy or in combination with MTX in patients with RA1,2. Patients frequently discontinue taking DMARDs, such as MTX, due to intolerance or adverse events. COMP-ACT is a randomised, double-blind, 52-week study evaluating the sustained efficacy of...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

August 18

Tocilizumab Discontinuation After Attaining Remission in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis who were Treated with Tocilizumab Alone or in Combination with Methotrexate: Results from a Prospective Randomised Controlled Study (the second year of the SURPRISE study)

Kaneko Y, Kato M, Tanaka Y, Inoo M, Kobayashi-Haraoka H, Amano K, Miyata M, Murakawa Y, Yasuoka H, Hirata S, Tanaka E, Miyasaka N, Yamanaka H, Yamamoto K, Takeuchi T, the SURPRISE study group.
Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77:1268–1275 DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/key121

The second-year results from the SURPRISE study show that low disease activity (LDA) can be maintained after discontinuation of tocilizumab with continued methotrexate after remission is achieved. Discontinuation of biologic agents in patients who have achieved remission or low disease activity (LDA) is desirable from a risk–benefit point of view. Compared with TNF inhibitors, little is known regarding TCZ-free remission or LDA, but studies indicate that only a small proportion of patien...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

Two Years of Sarilumab in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to MTX: Safety, Efficacy and Radiographic Outcomes

Genovese MC, van Adelsberg J, Fan C, Graham NMH, van Hoogstraten H, Parrino J, Mangan EK, Spindler A, Huizinga TWJ, van der Heijde D, for the EXTEND study investigators.
Rheumatology 2018;57:1423–1431 DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/key121

Two-year treatment of active, moderate-to-severe RA with sarilumab, along with dose reduction in the event of laboratory abnormalities, resulted in durable efficacy outcomes and a safety profile consistent with previous reports involving IL-6R inhibition. Durable long-term safety and efficacy, reduced joint damage progression, and conserving health-related quality of life and work productivity are important goals of therapy in RA.1 Sarilumab significantly reduced disease activity, improved phy...

Keywords: IL-6, Sarilumab, Clinical, Safety

Adverse Events, Clinical Considerations and Management Recommendations in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with JAK Inhibitors

Atzeni F, Talotta R, Nucera V, Marino F, Gerratana E, Sangari D, Masala IF, Sarzi-Puttini P.
Exp Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Nov;14(11):945-956. DOI: 10.1080/1744666X.2018.1504678

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are efficacious in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and have a favourable safety profile. However adverse events (AE), in particular infections, are associated with the use of JAK inhibitors. This paper reviews the mechanism behind JAK inhibitors, the AEs associated with them, and provides consideration in the management of AEs in clinical practice. Data on two RA approved JAK inhibitors – tofacitinib (TOF) and baricitinib (BARI) – was obtained usin...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

July 18

Thromboembolism with Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitor for Rheumatoid Arthritis: How Real is the Risk?

Scott IC, Hider SL, Scott DL.
Drug Safety 2018 Jul;41(7):645–53

Current data suggests that JAK inhibitors may increase the risk of thromboembolism and pulmonary thrombosis (PT) in RA. Two JAK inhibitors – baricitinib (BARI) and tofacitinib (TOF) – are considered effective treatments for RA, however, there are concerns about the thromboembolic risks associated with them. In August 2017, the summary of product characteristics for BARI was revised to include a warning of developing DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), with recommendations that BARI sho...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Safety and Efficacy of Upadacitinib in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory To Biologic Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (SELECT-BEYOND): a Double-Blind, Randomised Controlled Phase 3 Trial

Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Combe B, Hall S, Rubbert-Roth A, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Mohamed M-EF, Meerwein S, Pangan AL.
Lancet 2018;391:2513–24

Upadacitinib (UPA) extended release formulation was effective in treating patients with moderate-to-severe RA with an inadequate response to bDMARDs. Phase 2 study data has shown that UPA is an efficacious and safe treatment for active RA.1,2 SELECT-BEYOND was a double-blind, long-term extension, Phase 3 study to assess the efficacy of UPA in patients with RA who were bDMARD-IR. The first 12-weeks of SELECT-BEYOND were placebo-controlled, with a double-blind period followed by an ongoing double...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety and Efficacy of Upadacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Conventional Synthetic Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (SELECT-NEXT): a Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Trial

Burmester GR, Kremer JM, Van den Bosch F, Kivitz A, Bessette L, Li Y, Zhou Y, Othman AA, Pangan AL, Camp HS.
Lancet 2018;391:2503–12

Patients with moderate-to-severe active RA had significant improvements in clinical signs and symptoms with upadacitinib (UPA) compared with placebo. In Phase 2 studies, UPA showed favourable efficacy when administered twice daily as an immediate-release formulation at doses of 6–12 mg in patients with active RA who had TNFi-IR.1,2 An extended-release formulation allowing once-daily (QD) administration was developed for Phase 3 studies. SELECT-NEXT was a double-blind, multicentre, Phase 3...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 18

Patient Characteristics Influence the Choice of Biological Drug in RA, and will make non-TNFi Biologics appear more Harmful than TNFi Biologics

Frisell T, Baecklund E, Bengtsson K, Giuseppe DD, Forsblad-d’Elia H, Askling J, on behalf of the ARTIS Study Group.
Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77:650–57 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212395

Analysis of patient characteristics revealed that older and less healthy patients with RA were more likely to receive non-TNFi bDMARDs as a first bDMARD compared to other treatments. This study aimed to describe patient characteristics at initiation of bDMARD treatment at two-time points: first bDMARD initiation and switch to second bDMARD after TNFi treatment. The second aim of the study was to estimate the potential of treatment channelling to confound results in comparative treatment studies...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Real World, Efficacy

Effects of Baricitinib on Radiographic Progression of Structural Joint Damage at 1 year in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Conventional Synthetic Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs

van der Heijde D, Dougados M, Chen YC, Greenwald M, Drescher E, Klar R, Xie L, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Witt SL, Schlichting DE, de Bono S, Emery P.
RMD Open. 2018 May 8;4(1):e000662. DOI: 10.1136/rmdopen-2018-000662

Once daily baricitinib (BARI) inhibited radiographic progression of structural joint damage in patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to csDMARDs over 48 weeks. Current treatment goals aim to use DMARDs to inhibit structural joint damage and prevent long-term functional disability. In RA-BUILD¹, BARI was shown to significantly reduce radiographic joint damage progression in patients with active RA, with an intolerance or inadequate response to csDMARDs. Here, the authors repor...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Radiographic

May 18

Analysis of Spontaneous Postmarket Case Reports Submitted to the FDA Regarding Thromboembolic Adverse Events and JAK Inhibitors

Verden A, Dimbil M, Kyle R, Overstreet B, Hoffman KB.
Drug Saf 2018 Apr; 41(4):357–61 DOI: 10.1007/s40264-017-0622-2

Thromboembolic-related adverse events (AEs) were, in general, not considered a class-wide safety concern after analysis of tofacitinib (TOF) and ruxolitinib (RUX) clinical data, though pulmonary thrombosis is considered a potential class-wide safety issue and portal vein thrombosis was considered a potential safety issue for RUX. During analysis of baricitinib (BARI) clinical trial data, the FDA expressed concerns regarding thromboembolic events. Following this, the CHMP have recently added a ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

April 18

Tofacitinib for Treating Rheumatoid Arthritis After the Failure of Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal

Uttley L, Bermejo I, Shijie R, Martyn-St James M, Wong R, Scott DL, Young A, Stevenson M.
Pharmacoeconomics 2018 Sep; 36(9): 1063–72

In this National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) single technology appraisal of tofacitinib (TOF) plus methotrexate (MTX), TOF had similar efficacy and comparable costs to recommended bDMARDs plus MTX in patients with RA. NICE is an independent organisation responsible for providing national guidance on health technologies in England. To be recommended by NICE, the company must provide evidence to prove TOF’s effectiveness, both clinically and costly. This evidence based review, rep...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Effectiveness and Safety of Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Cohort Study

Machado MAÁ, Moura CS, Guerra SF, Curtis JR, Abrahamowicz M, Bernatsky S.
Arthritis Res Ther 2018; 20(1):60 doi: 10.1186/s13075-018-1539-6

A retrospective cohort study of tofacitinib (TOF) revealed that patients previously treated with methotrexate who initiated TOF, presented no differences in hospitalised infections or effectiveness, compared with non-TNF biologics. Currently, TOF is recommended in ACR and EULAR guidelines as an alternative to biologics after first-line cDMARD therapy. Previous indirect comparisons have shown that patients with RA who experience cDMARD failure show similar efficacy when given TNFis, abatacept, ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Safety

March 18

Worldwide, 3-year, Post-Marketing Surveillance Experience with Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Cohen S, Curtis JE, DeMasi R, Chen Y, Fan H, Soonasra A, Fleischmann R.
Rheumatol Ther 2018 Jun; 5(1):283–91

This real-world analysis of tofacitinib (TOF) revealed that AEs reported by patients with RA from 2012 to 2015 were consistent with the known safety profile of TOF – no new safety risks were identified. As of August 2017, it is estimated that more than 102 000 patients worldwide have received TOF, but TOF safety has not been evaluated in patients with real-world experience. This analysis addressed this – by evaluating the safety of TOF from post-marketing surveillance (PMS) reports ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Safety

January 18

Subcutaneous Tocilizumab in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Findings from the Common-framework Phase 4 Study Programme TOZURA Conducted in 22 Countries

Choy E, Caporali R, Xavier R, Fautrel B, Sanmarti R, Bao M, Bernasconi C, Pethö-Schramm A.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2018 Mar 1;57(3):499-507. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex443

This multi-national TOZURA study programme confirmed the efficacy and safety profile of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TC-SC) when administered as either monotherapy or in combination with csDMARDs. TOZURA was a Phase 4 study programme that evaluated open-label, TCZ-SC in patients with moderate-to-severe RA. A total of 1804 patients with active RA were enrolled in the study programme. Patients had inadequate responses to csDMARDs, anti-TNF therapies, or they were MTX-naïve. TCZ-SC was administe...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Phase 4

Two-year Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Tocilizumab in Combination with Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs Including Escalation to Weekly Dosing in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Kivitz A, Olech E, Borofsky MA, Zazueta B, Navarro-Sarabia F, Radominski SC, Merrill JT, Pacheco-Tena C, Pei J, Nasmyth-Miller, Pope JE.
J Rheumatol 2018 Apr; 45(4):456-464

This 2-year Phase 3 study, proved that subcutaneous tocilizumab (TC-SC) has long-term efficacy and an acceptable safety profile. Patients enrolled had been previously diagnosed with RA with an inadequate response to DMARDs. Patients were randomised 2:1 to receive doses of TCZ-SC (n=437) or PBO (n=219) every other week for 6 months. After this time, all patients received TCZ-SC. Escape therapy, defined as weekly TCZ-SC, was available to patients from Month 3. Efficacy was analysed using ACR resp...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Phase 3

Patient-Reported Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated to Target with a Tocilizumab- or Methotrexate-based Strategy

Teitsma XM, Jacobs JWG, Welsing PMJ, Pethö-Schramm A, Borm MEA, Hendriks L, Denissen NHAM, van Laar JM, Lafeber FPJG, Bijlsma JWJ.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 Dec 1;56(12):2179-2189 doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kex319

Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) vastly improved in the first 24 weeks post-initiation of tocilizumab (TCZ) therapies compared to methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy in the U-Act-Early trial. U-Act-Early was a two-year, treat-to-target study that compared the safety and efficacy of TCZ and MTX treatment strategies in DMARD-naïve patients with early RA. Sustained remission was classed as more effective in patients given TCZ monotherapy or combination therapy with MTX compared to MTX alone. TCZ th...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, PRO

December 17

Effect of Glucocorticoids on the Clinical and Radiographic Efficacy of Tofacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Posthoc Analysis of Data from 6 Phase III studies

Charles-Schoeman C, van der Heijde D, Bumester GR, Nash P, Zerbini CAF, Connell CA, Fan H, Kwok K, Bananis E, Fleischmann R.
J Rheumatol 2018 Feb; 45(2):177-87

In this post hoc analysis, six Phase 3 studies were used to analyse the effect of glucocorticoids (GC) on the efficacy of tofacitinib (TOF) in patients with RA. Concomitant use of GC did not affect the clinical or radiographic outcomes of patients treated with TOF. Data from all six clinical trials were evaluated, with four studies (ORAL Scan, ORAL Standard, ORAL Sync and ORAL Step) being pooled for analysis. In these studies, MTX was used as a comparison and patients were required to maintain ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

JAK Inhibition as a Therapeutic Strategy for Immune and Inflammatory Diseases

Schwartz DM, Kanno Y, Villarino A, Ward M, Gadina M, O’Shea JJ.
Nat Rev Drug Discov 2017;16:843–62 DOI: 10.1038/nrd.2017.201

Janus kinases (JAKs) are essential mediators of downstream signaling pathways in many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes current clinical data on first- and second-generation JAK inhibitors (jakinibs) and discusses their use for the treatment of immune and inflammatory conditions. First generation jakinibs such as tofacitinib, baricitinib, and ruxolitinib, non-selectively inhibit JAK-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are major contributors to immunopathology. ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

November 17

Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib: Clinical Outcomes and the Risk of Concomitant Therapy

Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, Lindsey S, Tanaka Y, Yamaoka K, Valdez H, Hirose T, Nduaka CI, Wang L, Mendelsohn AM, Fan H, Chen C, Bananis E.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2017;69(10):1960–68

The results of this analysis of patients with herpes zoster (HZ) within the global tofacitinib (TOF) RA programme suggest that there is likely to be a greater HZ risk in patients receiving TOF and glucocorticoids compared with patients receiving TOF monotherapy. The global TOF RA development programme comprised 2 Phase 1, 9 Phase 2, 6 Phase 3 and 2 long-term extension studies. These studies included 6192 patients; data were reviewed to identify cases of HZ. Crude incidence rates of number of pa...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Tofacitinib or Adalimumab versus Placebo for Psoriatic Arthritis

Mease P, Hall S, FitzGerald O, van der Heijde D, Merola J F, Avila-Zapata F, Cieslak D, Graham D, Wang C, Menon S, Hendrikx T, Kanik K S.
N Engl J Med 2017; 377:1537-50. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615975

In the Phase 3 OPAL Broaden trial of patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with inadequate response to ≥1 csDMARD, superior efficacy was observed in patients treated with tofacitinib (TOF) compared with those given placebo. Patients were randomised to: 5 mg TOF BID, 10 mg TOF BID, 40 mg adalimumab administered subcutaneously q2W, or placebo with a switch to 5 mg TOF at Month 3. Adalimumab was used as an active control in the study. A variety of primary and secondary endpoints wer...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Tofacitinib for Psoriatic Arthritis in Patients with an Inadequate Response to TNF Inhibitors

Gladman D, Rigby W, Azevedo VF, Behrens F, Blanco R, Kaszuba A, Kudlacz E, Wang C, Menon S, Hendrikx T, Kanik KS.
N Engl J Med 2017;377:1525–36.

The study data presented that tofacitinib (TOF) improves efficacy response rates in patients with severe psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who have an inadequate response to TNF inhibitors. The Phase 3 Oral Psoriatic Arthritis Trial (OPAL) Beyond study evaluated patients with active PsA who had inadequate responses to more than one TNFi. Patients were randomised 2:2:1:1 to 5 mg TOF BID or 10 mg TOF BID for 6 months; or PBO, with a switch to 5 mg TOF BID or to 10 mg BID at 3 months. Primary endpoints w...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib in Elderly Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Fleischmann R, Alam J, Arora V, Bradley J, Schlichting DE, Muram D, Smolen JS.
RMD Open. 2017; 3(2): e000546. doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2017-000546

In this post hoc analysis of pooled data from two randomised controlled trials, RA-BUILD and RA-BEAM, age was shown not to be a contraindication for use of baricitinib. Patients in RA-BUILD were csDMARD-inadequate responder(IR) patients who received an oral placebo or 2 mg or 4 mg baricitinib once daily. Patients in RA-BEAM were MTX-IR patients and received an oral placebo, 4 mg baricitinib once daily or subcutaneous adalimumab every 2 weeks. Efficacy and safety of baricitinib in elderly patie...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

October 17

Lymphoma in the Tofacitinib Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Development Program

Mariette X, Chen C, Biswas P, Kwok K, Boy MG.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2018 May;70(5):685-694. doi: 10.1002/acr.23421

Analysis of 19 studies involving the use of tofacitinib to treat RA showed that lymphoma incidence rate and type were consistent with expectations in the RA population as a whole, and did not increase with tofacitinib exposure time. Previous research has suggested that there is a link between the likelihood of developing malignant tumours and RA. Previously, it has been unclear whether the increased rates seen are due to the use of immunomodulatory therapies, such as tofacitinib, which are used...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Transaminase Levels and Hepatic Events During Tocilizumab Treatment: Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Clinical Trial Safety Data in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese MC, Kremer JM, van Vollenhoven RF, Alten R, Scali JJ, Kelman A, Dimonaco S, Brockwell L.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Sep;69(9):1751-1761. doi: 10.1002/art.40176

In this pooled analysis investigating liver enzyme abnormalities and hepatic adverse events (AEs) during long-term tocilizumab (TCZ) treatment for RA in clinical trials, although transaminase elevations were frequent, rates of hepatic serious AEs remained low. Data were pooled from patients who received ≥1 dose of IV TCZ with or without DMARDs in Phase 3 or 4 clinical trials, long-term extensions, and a pharmacology study. A total of 4171 patients were included in the all-exposure populati...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Safety

September 17

The Safety and Immunogenicity of Live Zoster Vaccination in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Before Starting Tofacitinib: A Randomized Phase II Trial

Winthrop KL, Wouters A, Choy E, Soma K, Hodge J, Nduaka C, Biswas P, Needle E, Passador MS, Mojcik C, Rigby W.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;69(10):1969-1977. doi: 10.1002/art.40187

Patients with RA who started treatment with tofacitinib 2–3 weeks after being vaccinated against herpes zoster had similar varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses to the live vaccine compared to patients who received placebo. In this Phase 2 study, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were evaluated before receipt of live zoster vaccine (LZV) and at 2, 6 and 14 weeks after vaccination, having been randomised to tofacitinib 5 mg BID or placebo, 2&nda...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Herpes Zoster and Tofacitinib Therapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Winthrop KL, Yamanaka H, Valdez H, Mortensen E, Chew R, Krishnaswami S, Kawabata T, Riese R.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2014;66:2675–84

Patients who were treated with tofacitinib in the RA clinical development programme were more likely to develop herpes zoster than were those who received placebo. Cases of herpes zoster reported by investigators in the Phase 2, Phase 3 and long-term extension studies of tofacitinib were evaluated. Herpes zoster was noted in 5% of tofacitinib-treated patients; only 7% of these cases were serious, no patients with herpes zoster died and only 10% permanently discontinued tofacitinib treatment. T...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib through 128 Weeks in an Open-label, Longterm Extension Study in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Keystone EC, Genovese MC, Schlichting DE, de la Torre I, Beattie SD, Rooney TP, Taylor PC.
J Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;45(1):14-21. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.161161

This open-label extension (OLE) of a Phase 2b randomised controlled trial (RCT) found that safety data collected over 2 years of treatment were generally consistent with previous findings for baricitinib in RA. In the RCT, baricitinib demonstrated significant improvement in disease activity compared with placebo and an acceptable safety profile in patients with RA and an inadequate response to MTX. Patients who completed the 24-week double-blind period of the study were eligible for the OLE. Ra...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

August 17

Analysis of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer across the Tofacitinib Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Programme

Curtis JR, Lee EB, Martin G, Mariette X, Terry TT, Chen Y, Geier J, Andrews J, Kaur M, Fan H, Nduaka CI.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2017;35:614–22

Because non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is one of the most common malignancies associated with RA immunomodulatory therapies, this analysis looked to determine the rate of NMSC incidence per 100 patient-years in patients with RA receiving TOF in the clinical trial programme. The Phase 1, 2, and 3 IRs (combined) for both TOF 5- and 10 mg were low and comparable to those of adalimumab, MTX and placebo, IRs remained stable over time. TOF doses used in the 2 Phase 1; 8 Phase 2; and 6 Phase 3 studi...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

July 17

Long-term safety of tofacitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis up to 8.5 years: integrated analysis of data from the global clinical trials

Cohen BS, Tanaka Y, Mariette X, Curtis JR, Lee EB, Nash P, Winthrop KL, Charles-Shoeman C, Thirunavukkarasu K, DeMasi R, Geier J, Kwok K, Wang L, Riese R, Wollenhaupt J.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:1253-1262. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210457

This analysis of exposure to tofacitinib, an oral JAKi for the treatment of RA, for up to 8.5 years allowed estimation of safety events with improved precision versus previous tofacitinib reports. Adverse events were generally stable over time; no new safety signals were observed compared with previous tofacitinib reports. Data were collated into an integrated safety summary of tofacitinib in adult patients with active RA, and included data spanning the tofacitinib clinical programme: from 2 P...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis with Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor or Tocilizumab Therapy as First Biologic in a Global Comparative observational Study

Choy EH, Bernasconi C, Aassi M, Molina JF, Epis OM.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2017 Oct;69(10):1484-1494. doi: 10.1002/acr.23303

To date, the comparative efficacy of tocilizumab and TNFi for patients with RA has only been investigated in a single head-to-head trial and network meta-analyses. This study, ACT-iON, is the first prospective, large-scale, global, multicentre, comparative effectiveness study comparing initiation of intravenous tocilizumab with initiation of a TNFi in patients with RA as the first-line biologic treatment after inadequate response to csDMARDs. Patients were observed in a real-world, clinical pra...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Real World, Efficacy

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib Monotherapy, Tofacitinib with Methotrexate, and Adalimumab with Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (ORAL Strategy): A Phase 3b/4, Double-Blind, Head-To-Head, Randomised Controlled Trial

Fleischmann R, Mysler E, Hall S, Kivitz A, Moots R, Luo Z, DeMasi R, Soma K, Zhang R, Takiya L, Tatulych S, Mojcik C, Krishnaswami S, Menon S, Smolen J, on behalf of the ORAL Strategy investigators.
Lancet. 2017 Jul 29;390(10093):457-468. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31618-5

In this first head-to-head non-inferiority trial assessing a JAKi ± MTX directly compared with a TNFi + MTX in patients with RA, tofacitinib (TOF) + MTX showed non-inferiority to adalimumab (ADA) + MTX. Non-inferiority was not shown for TOF monotherapy versus TOF + MTX, or versus ADA + MTX. In this 52-week study, MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients were randomised 1:1:1 to receive TOF 5 mg BID monotherapy, TOF 5 mg BID + MTX or ADA 40 mg every other week + MTX. The primary endpoint, A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Efficacy, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus kinase 1 Inhibitor, after Short-term Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of Two randomized Phase IIA Trials

Vanhoutte F, Mazur M, Voloshyn O, Stanislavchuk M, Van der Aa A, Namour F, Galien R, Meuleners L, van ‘t Klooster G.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2017 Oct;69(10):1949-1959. doi: 10.1002/art.40186

In two 4-week exploratory Phase 2a trials in MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients with RA, the highly selective JAK1 inhibitor filgotinib met the primary endpoint of ACR20 at Week 4, showing greater response than placebo. Study 1, a proof-of-concept study, included 127 patients randomised to placebo, filgotinib 100 mg BID or filgotinib 200 mg QD. Study 2, was a dose-ranging study and included 91 patients randomised to placebo, filgotinib 30 mg QD, filgotinib 75 mg QD, filgotinib 150 mg QD or ...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

June 17

Biologics or Tofacitinib for People with Rheumatoid Arthritis Naïve to Methotrexate: a Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis

Singh JA, Hossain A, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Mudano AS, Tanjong Ghogomu E, Suarez-Almazor ME, Buchbinder R, Maxwell LJ, Tugwell P, Wells GA.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 8;5:CD012657. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012657

This Cochrane systemic review and network meta-analysis looked at the benefits and harms of biologics or tofacitinib in patients with RA not previously treated with MTX. Using data from 19 RCTs including 6,485 participants, the review found that biologics (abatacept, adalimumab, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, rituximab) in combination with MTX improved signs and symptoms of RA (ACR50) and increased the chances of remission (DAS <1.6 or DAS28 <2.6). There was also some evidence of an ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

May 17

Tocilizumab Combination Therapy or Monotherapy or Methotrexate Monotherapy in Methotrexate-naïve Patients with Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: 2-year Clinical and Radiographic Results from the Randomized, Placebo-controlled FUNCTION Trial

Burmester GR, Rigby WF, van Vollenhoven RF, Kay J, Rubbert-Roth A, Blanco R, Kadva A and Dimonaco S.
Ann Rheum Dis Published Online First: 7 April 2017. Doi 10.1136/annrheumdis-20160210561

Burmester et al. present data showing that 52-week efficacy and safety of intravenous tocilizumab plus methotrexate, or tocilizumab monotherapy are maintained through to Week 104 in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were assigned to four treatment groups: 4 mg/kg TCZ + MTX, 8 mg/kg TCZ + MTX, 8 mg/kg TCZ + placebo or placebo + MTX. Patients not achieving DAS28 ≤3.2 at Week 52 and who were not receiving 8 mg/kg TCZ were rescued to 8 mg/kg TCZ + MTX. Of the 1162 randomly assi...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Phase 3

March 17

A Phase IIb Study of ABT-494, a Selective JAK-1 Inhibitor, in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Anti–Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy

Kremer JM, Emery P, Camp HS, Friedman A, Wang L, Othman AA, Khan N, Pangan AL, Jungerwirth S and Keystone EC.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016;68:2867–77

The summary and accompanying slide deck have been developed in conjunction with the Genovese et al. study (Study 1) which examined ABT-494 in MTX-IR patients in order to compare and contrast the data. In these two Phase 2b studies, ABT-494 (a novel selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to be effective in patients with active RA who were non-responders to MTX or at least one TNF inhibitor. Patients with active RA who had an inadequate response to MTX (study 1) or were refractory to or intoleran...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy and Safety of ABT-494, a Selective JAK-1 Inhibitor, in a Phase IIb Study in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate

Genovese MC, Smolen JS, Weinblatt ME, Burmester GR, Meerwein S, Camp HS, Wang L, Othman AA, Khan N, Pangan AL and Jungerwirth S.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016;68:2857–66

The summary and accompanying slide deck have been developed in conjunction with the Kremer et al. study (Study 2) which examined ABT-494 in TNF-IR patients in order to compare and contrast the data. In these two Phase 2b studies, ABT-494 (a novel selective JAK-1 inhibitor) was shown to be effective in patients with active RA who were non-responders to MTX or at least one TNF inhibitor. Patients with active RA who had an inadequate response to MTX (study 1) or were refractory to or intolerant ...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Translated by: JAK 1 |

Cardiovascular Safety of Tocilizumab versus Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis – a Multi-database Cohort Study

Kim SC, Solomon DH, Rogers JR, Gale S, Klearman M, Sarsour K and Schneeweiss S.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2017 Feb 28. doi: 10.1002/art.40084

This multi-database population-based US cohort study found no evidence of an increased cardiovascular (CV) risk among RA patients who switched from a different biologic drug or tofacitinib to tocilizumab (TCZ) versus to a TNF inhibitor (TNFi). The study used claims data in patients with RA newly starting treatment with TCZ or a TNFi from three large databases: Medicare (n=7397), PharMetrics (n=8119) and MarketScan (n=12512). Included within the analysis were 9218 TCZ initiators propensity-score...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Real World, Cardiovascular

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib in Older and Younger Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Curtis JR, Schulze-Koops H, Takiya L, Mebus CA, Terry KK, Biswas P and Jones TV.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2017 Jan 4

In this analysis of patients with moderate to severe RA treated with tofacitinib (TOF) in Phase 3 and long-term extension (LTE) studies, patients aged 65 years had similar efficacy and a numerically higher risk of SAEs and discontinuations due to AEs compared with younger patients. The Phase 3 population included patients from five trials (n=3111) of TOF 5 mg or 10 mg BID or placebo. The LTE population (n=4102) included patients from two studies who had participated in Phase 1, 2 or 3 TOF stud...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Efficacy and Safety of Sirukumab in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Refractory to Anti-TNF Therapy (SIRROUND-T): A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Multinational, Phase 3 Study

Aletaha D, Bingham CO 3rd, Tanaka Y, Agarwal P, Kurrasch R, Tak PP and Popik S.
Lancet 2017;pii:S0140-6736(17)30401-4

In this Phase 3 multicentre, randomised controlled trial in patients with active RA who were refractory or intolerant to previous biological treatment with at least one TNF inhibitor, sirukumab 50 mg every four weeks (Q4W) or 100 mg every two weeks (Q2W) was well tolerated and significantly improved signs and symptoms of disease. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to placebo (n=294), sirukumab 50 mg Q4W (n=292) or sirukumab 100 mg Q2W (n=292), while continuing any concomitant DMARDs. Of the 878 ran...

Keywords: IL-6, Sirukumab, Clinical, Phase 3

February 17

Analysis of Haematological Changes in Tofacitinib-treated Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis across Phase 3 and Long-term Extension Studies

Schulze-Koops H, Strand V, Nduaka C, DeMasi R, Wallenstein G, Kwok K and Wang L.
Rheumatology 2017;56:46–57.

In this analysis examining haematological changes after tofacitinib (TOF) treatment in patients with RA from pooled Phase 3 and LTE studies, TOF decreased mean lymphocyte counts and slightly increased mean haemoglobin (Hb) levels. The Phase 3 population included patients from six trials (n=4271) of TOF 5- or 10 mg BID, placebo or active comparator up to 24 months. The LTE population (n=4858) included patients from two studies (of up to 84 months), who had participated in Phase 1, 2 or 3 TOF st...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Tocilizumab Use in Pregnancy: Analysis of a Global Safety Database Including Data from Clinical Trials and Post-marketing Data

Hoeltzenbein M, Beck E, Rajwanshib R, GøtestamSkorpen C, Berberb E, Schaefera C, Østensenc M, .
Semin Arthritis Rheum 2016;46:238–45. DOI 10.1016/j.seminarthrit.2016.05.004.

This dataset is the largest series of tocilizumab (TCZ)-exposed pregnancies to date; considering the limitations of global safety databases, the data presented provide information to assist physicians and patients in making informed decisions. At present, published experience on TCZ use during pregnancy is very limited. In the current analysis, all pregnancy-related reports in the Roche Global Safety Database until December 31, 2014 were analysed. Outcomes assessed included: spontaneous abortio...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Safety

Peficitinib, a JAK Inhibitor, in Combination with Limited Conventional Synthetic DMARDs in the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese MC, Greenwald M, Codding C, Zubrzycka-Sienkiewicz A, Kivitz AJ, Wang A, Shay K, Wang X, Garg JP, Cardiel MH.
Arthritis Rheumatol DOI 10.1002/art.40054. Accepted article.

In this Phase 2b study in patients with moderate to severe RA, once-daily peficitinib in combination with limited csDMARDs reduced the symptoms of RA, demonstrated a dose-dependent ACR20 response rate over 12 weeks, and showed acceptable tolerability. This 12-week study included patients who had an inadequate response or intolerance to csDMARDs (N=289). Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1:1 to peficitinib 25-, 50-, 100, 150 mg or matching placebo. Statistically significant differences in the AC...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Baricitinib in Patients with Inadequate Response or Intolerance to Conventional Synthetic DMARDs: Results from the RA-BUILD Study

Dougados M, van der Heijde D, Chen Y-C, Greenwald M, Drescher E, Liu J, Beattie S, Witt S, de la Torre I, Gaich C, Rooney T, Schlichting D, de Bono S, Emery P.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:88–95.

Baricitinib improved symptoms of RA in the RA-BUILD trial, a Phase 3 study of baricitinib in patients with moderately to severely active RA, refractory to or intolerant to csDMARDs. As well as providing a short-term (24 weeks) benefit, there appeared to be joint damage benefit, considered a marker of long-term disability. RA-BUILD was a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to receive once-daily doses of placebo (n=228) or bari...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

January 17

Five-year Efficacy and Safety of Tocilizumab Monotherapy in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis who were Methotrexate- and Biologic-naïve or Free of Methotrexate for 6 Months: the AMBITION Study

Jones G, Wallace T, McIntosh MJ, Brockwell L, Gómez-Reino JJ, Sebba A.
J Rheumatol 2017;44:2. DOI 10.3899/jrheum.160287.

Results from the AMBITION study (Actemra versus Methotrexate double-Blind Investigate Trial In mONotherapy), showed the continuing efficacy and safety of tocilizumab up to 264 weeks. AMBITION was a 24-week randomised controlled trial in patients with active RA who were either MTX-naïve or MTX-free for 6 months prior to study entry. Patients received TCZ 8 mg/kg IV Q4W or oral MTX weekly (7.5 mg dose escalating to 20 mg). For those patients who then entered the long-term extension (LTE) stu...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

December 16

Efficacy and Safety of Sarilumab Monotherapy versus Adalimumab Monotherapy for the Treatment of Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis (MONARCH): a Randomised, Double-blind, Parallel-group Phase III Trial

Burmester GR, Lin Y, Patel R, van Adelsberg J, Mangan EK, Graham NMH, van Hoogstraten H, Bauer D, Vargas JI, Lee E-B.
Ann Rheum Dis 2016. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-210310

In this Phase 3 superiority study (MONARCH) of patients with active RA who should not continue treatment with MTX because of intolerance or inadequate response, sarilumab monotherapy demonstrated superior efficacy to adalimumab (ADA) monotherapy. Patients receiving sarilumab versus ADA also reported greater improvement in health status, including a trend towards greater improvement in fatigue. In this randomised, multicentre study, patients received sarilumab 200 mg Q2W plus placebo (n=184) or ...

Keywords: IL-6, Sarilumab, Clinical, Phase 3

Peficitinib, a JAK Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Moderate-to-severe Rheumatoid Arthritis in Methotrexate-inadequate Responders

Kivitz AJ, Gutierrez-Ureña SR, Poiley J, Genovese MC, Kristy R, Shay K, Wang X, Garg JP, Zubrzycka-Sienkiewicz A.
Arthritis & Rheum 2016; ePub ahead of print

This Phase 2b study of peficitinib (ASP015K), an orally administered once-daily JAK inhibitor, plus MTX, demonstrated efficacy across multiple secondary endpoints with higher peficitinib doses. Peficitinib in combination with MTX was well tolerated with a safety profile that was consistent with previous studies. A high placebo response rate was seen in both Latin and North America, when patient data were stratified. This high placebo rate is problematic for the accurate interpretation of pefic...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy of VX-509 (decernotinib) in Combination with a Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drug in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical and MRI Findings

Genovese M, Yang F, Østergaard M and Kinnman N.
Ann Rheum Dis 2016;75:1979–83

This Phase 2b study of VX-509 (decernotinib), a selective JAK3 inhibitor, showed that VX-509 in combination with stable DMARD therapy was effective for improving synovitis and osteitis as assessed by MRI in patients who had an inadequate response to DMARD therapy. Patients were randomised to treatment groups receiving either placebo, VX-509 100 mg, 200 mg or 300 mg for 12 weeks. Minimum inclusion criteria included Grade ≥2 clinical synovitis in either the wrist or two metacarpophalangeal joi...

Keywords: JAK, Decernotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

October 16

Tocilizumab as Monotherapy or Combination Therapy for Treating Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: a Meta-analysis of efficacy and Safety Reported in Randomized Controlled Trials

Teitsma XM, Marijnissen AKA, Bijlsma JWJ, Lafeber FPJ, Jacobs JWG.
Arthritis Res Ther 2016; 18:211. DOI 10.1186/s13075-016-1108-9

This is the first meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety of TCZ monotherapy (TCZMONO) versus TCZ + csDMARD (TCZCOMBI) in patients with RA. The findings show that similar efficacy can be expected with TCZ monotherapy in patients with intolerance to csDMARDs compared with inadequate responders to csDMARDs who switch to TCZ add-on therapy. A total of 6679 patients from 13 studies were included, receiving: 1298, TCZMONO; 3077, TCZCOMBI; 2204, csDMARDs. Meta-analyses were performed for the foll...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Phase 3

RAPID3 and ACR/EULAR Provisional Definitions as Predictors of Radiographic Outcome in a Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trial with Tocilizumab

Khawaja MN, Bergman MJ, Yourish J, Pei J, Reiss W, Keystone E.
Arthritis Care Res 2016; Accepted article. DOI 10.1002/acr.23008.

The findings reported represent the first validation of RAPID3 (Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3) remission ± SJC ≤1 as an alternative to the established SDAI or Boolean remission definitions, which can be time consuming and costly to measure. RAPID3 is a pooled index of the patient-reported measures: function, pain and Patient Global estimate of status. Data were analysed from the TociLIzumab Safety and THE Prevention of Structural Joint Damage (LITHE) study, a 2-year doubl...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Radiographic

August 16

A Randomized Phase 2b Study of ABT-494, a Selective JAK Inhibitor in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Methotrexate

Genovese M, Smolen J, Weinblatt M, Burmester G, Meerwein S, Camp H, Wang L, Othman A, Khan N, Pangan A, Jungerwirth S.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016; Accepted article DOI 10.1002/art-39808 [Epub 2016]

This dose-ranging study evaluated the efficacy of the novel, selective JAK1 inhibitor ABT-494 versus placebo in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and inadequate response (IR) to MTX. In this 12-week, randomised, double-blind study (BALANCE II), the efficacy and safety of ABT-494 dosed at 3mg, 6 mg, 12 mg, 18 mg (all twice daily) and 24 mg (once daily) was assessed. Patients included had not received prior biologic therapy. Of the 299 patients included in the analysis, the proportions of pati...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

July 16

Switching from Adalimumab to Tofacitinib in the Treatment of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Genovese, et al.
Arthritis Research & Therapy. 2016. DOI 10.1186/s13075-016-1049-3 [Epub ahead of print]

Results are reported from an analysis exploring the safety and efficacy of open-label tofacitinib (TOF) following blinded treatment with TOF or adalimumab (ADA) in patients with moderate to severe RA. The analysis included patients from ORAL Sequel, an open-label long-term extension study, which all patients entered following ORAL Standard (one of the studies in the TOF phase 3 program). Only those patients who had been randomized to ADA 40 mg Q2W + MTX or 10 mg TOF + MTX in ORAL Standard were...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World

Efficacy and safety of the oral Janus kinase inhibitor peficitinib (ASP015K) monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis in Japan:�a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study

Takeuchi et al.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Jun;75:1057-64. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208279. Epub 2015 Dec 15

Peficitinib (ASP015K) is a novel orally bioavailable JAK inhibitor in development for the treatment of RA. It inhibits JAK1, JAK2, JAK3 and Tyk2 enzyme activities and has moderate selectivity or JAK3 inhibition. Here the authors report the findings of a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase IIb study evaluating efficacy, safety and dose response of peficitinib (25, 50, 100, or 150 mg) as once-daily oral monotherapy in Japanese patients with moderate to severe RA. The prim...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Two-year Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis in Clinical Practice

Notario Ferreira, Ferrer González MA, Morales Garrido P, et al.
Reumatol Clin. 2016; May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.reuma.2016.03.014 [Epub ahead of print]

The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab has been studied in several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) but due to the strict inclusion and exclusion criteria of RCTs, real-life observational studies are needed to supplement the findings from these trials. This small longitudinal, open-label study from an outpatient clinic in Spain evaluated the effectiveness, survival rate and reasons for treatment discontinuations in 85 patients treated with tocilizumab over a 24-month period. The study also as...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Real World

Efficacy and Safety of Baricitinib in Japanese Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Background Methotrexate Therapy: A 12-week, Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study

Tanaka Y, Emoto K, Cai Z, et al.
J Rheumatol. 2016;43(3):504–511.

Clinical trials have shown baricitinib once daily to be effective in patients with RA. However, this Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitor has not been evaluated in a Japanese population. In this 12-week, placebo-controlled study, 145 Japanese patients were enrolled and received placebo, 1 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg or 8 mg oral baricitinib daily. Efficacy results were encouraging and consistent with earlier trials. Significantly more baricitinib patients achieved ACR20 response at Week 12 of treatment compa...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

May 16

The Efficacy and Safety of Clazakizumab, an Anti-Interleukin-6 Monoclonal Antibody, in a Phase 2b Study of Adults with Active Psoriatic Arthritis

Mease et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2016 Mar 24. DOI 10.1002/art.39700 [Epub ahead of print]

Encouraging results have been seen with clazakizumab in RA, but the results of anti-IL6 therapy in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have so far been unclear. This Phase 2b dose-ranging study examined the efficacy and safety of clazakizumab given subcutaneously q4w, with or without MTX, in 165 patients with PsA who had inadequate response to NSAIDs. ACR20 response at Week 16, the primary endpoint, was significantly higher in patients receiving clazakizumab 100 mg compared with placebo (52...

Keywords: IL-6, Clazakizumab, Clinical, Phase 2

Real-world Comparative Risks of Herpes Virus Infections in Tofacitinib and Biologic-treated Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Curtis et al.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2016 Apr 25;0:1–5 doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2016-209131

Herpes Zoster (HZ) complications can cause considerable morbidity including debilitating pain syndromes. Clinical trials of tofacitinib have suggested it may increase the risk of HZ. Although unclear, the mechanism may involve reduced CD4 T-cell function and interference of interferon signalling. Following approval of tofacitinib in the US in 2012, real-world data from Medicare (2006–2013) and from the US longitudinal database, Marketscan, (2010–2014) were analysed. A total of 252...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Infections

March 16

Pregnancy outcome after tocilizumab therapy in early pregnancy – a case series from the German Embryotox Pharmacovigilance Center

Weber-Schoendorfer et al.
Reproductive Toxicology doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.01.002

MTX users have an increased incidence of spontaneous abortions (SABs) compared to baseline risk (42.5%1 vs. 13-17%2). Tocilizumab (TCZ) has been shown to have similar efficacy with or without MTX. There is currently limited data on the effect of TCZ on pregnancy, but with more safety data, TCZ could be an alternative for RA patients of reproductive age. The patients were enrolled at Embryotox Berlin, a pharmacovigilance center providing risk assessment during pregnancy, between 2011 and 2014 d...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Real World, Safety

Comparison of adding tocilizumab to methotrexate with switching to tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with inadequate response to methotrexate: 52-week results from a prospective, randomised, controlled study (SURPRISE study)

Kaneko et al.
Ann Rheum Dis 2016 Jan 5 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208426 [Epub ahead of print

MTX is the primary drug in RA management because of its long-term effectiveness and safety profile; however, in patients who have insufficient response (IR) to MTX, treatment adjustments are needed – either to combine a bDMARD with MTX or to switch to a bDMARD from MTX. In the SURPRISE study, the efficacy and safety of adding TCZ to MTX (ADD-ON) or switching MTX to TCZ (SWITCH) was evaluated in 233 patients with moderate to highly active RA who were randomised 1:1. Both treatment groups we...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Phase 3

October 15

Efficacy and safety of olokizumab in Asian patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis, previously exposed to anti-TNF therapy: Results from a randomized phase II trial

Takeuchi T, Tanaka Y, Yamanaka H, Amano K, Nagamine R, Park W, Shiozawa K, Tsukano M, Wei J, Shao J, Togo O, Mashimo H.
Modern Rheumatology. 2015 Sep 10:1-9. [Epub ahead of print]

This Phase II study assessed the safety and efficacy of olokizumab in Asian patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis, previously exposed to anti-TNF therapy. After 12 weeks of treatment, olokizumab was found to rapidly improve disease activity in patients who had previously failed anti-TNF therapy. There was also a significant decrease in ACR20 and ACR50 responder rates at week 12. The safety findings were consistent with the safety profile expected for this drug class. These findin...

Keywords: IL-6, Olokizumab, Clinical, Phase 2

Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib following inadequate response to conventional synthetic or biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

Charles-Schoeman C, Burmester G, Nash P, Zerbini CA, Soma K, Kwok K, Hendrikx T, Bananis E, Fleischmann R.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 2015 Aug 14. doi:pii: annrheumdis-2014-207178.

This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients with inadequate response to sDMARDs or bDMARDs. Findings from this study show both doses of tofacitinib were associated with improvements in efficacy parameters at month 3 versus placebo, and clinical response was numerically greater with bDMARD-naïve versus bDMARD-IR patients (95% CI overlapping). Safety parameters were generally similar; however, patients receiving glucocorticoids had ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

September 15

Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib as monotherapy in Japanese patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a 12-week, randomized, phase 2 study

Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T, Yamanaka H, Nakamura H, Toyoizumi S, Zwillich S.
Modern Rheumatology. 2015 Jul;25(4):514-21. doi: 10.3109/14397595.2014.995875.

The oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor, Tofacitinib, preferentially inhibits signalling by heterodimeric receptors associated with JAK3 and/or JAK1, blocking signalling for several cytokines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of tofacitinib monotherapy versus placebo in Japanese patients with inadequate response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Data on response rates – ACR20/50/70, DAS28-4(ESR), and HAQ-DI – laboratory parameters and adverse eve...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

The Efficacy and Safety of Subcutaneous Clazakizumab in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Methotrexate: Results from a Phase IIb, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo/Active-Controlled, Dose-Ranging, Multinational Study

Weinblatt ME, Mease P, Mysler E, Takeuchi T, Drescher E, Berman A, Xing J, Zilberstein M, Banerjee S, Emery P.
Arthritis & Rheumatology. 2015 Jul 2. doi: 10.1002/art.39249. [Epub ahead of print]

The humanised monoclonal antibody, Clazakizumab (CLZ), binds to circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) cytokine rather than the IL-6 receptor, blocking both classical and trans-signalling. The purpose of this phase 2B study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clazakizumab in patients with inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX). Data on selected response rates – ACR20/50/70, DAS28-CRP, SDAI ≤3.3, CDAI ≤2.8 and the ACR/EULAR Boolean definition – and adverse events were collec...

Keywords: IL-6, Clazakizumab, Clinical, Phase 2

July 15

Long-term Safety of Tocilizumab: Results from 3 Years of Followup Postmarketing Surveillance of 5573 Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Japan

Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Hajime Goto, Kenzo Hirao, Atsuo Nakajima, Hideki Origasa, Kunihiko Tanaka, Minako Tomobe and Kyoichi Totsuka.
The Journal of Rheumatology. 1 June 2015 DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.141210 [Epub ahead of print]

The humanised anti-interleukin 6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been available in clinical practice for several years. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety of for the treatment of RA in a real-world clinical setting as a long-term extension of a single-arm, observational post marketing surveillance study. Data on selected adverse events (AEs) - fatal events, serious infection, malignancy, GI perforation, and serious cardiac dysfunction - were collect...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Safety

Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis: results from two, randomised, placebo-controlled, Phase 3 trials

Papp KA, Menter MA, Abe M, Elewski B, Feldman SR, Gottlieb AB, Langley R, Luger T, Thaci D, Buonanno M, Gupta P, Proulx J, Lan S, Wolk R, OPT Pivotal 1 and OPT Pivotal 2 Investigators.
British Journal of Dermatology. 7 July 2015 DOI: 10.1111/bjd.14018. [Epub ahead of print]

The management of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis has benefited from the introduction of biological therapies, but unmet needs still remain, especially for oral therapies. Tofacitinib is an orally active agent that blocks signalling of key cytokines implicated in the immune response and inflammatory pathways of psoriasis. The Phase III studies presented in this paper analysed efficacy and safety endpoints. Both studies demonstrated that tofacitinib in both 5 mg and 10 mg twice daily...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tocilizumab versus intravenous tocilizumab in combination with traditional DMARDs in patients with RA at week 97 (SUMMACTA)

Gerd R Burmester, Andrea Rubbert-Roth, Alain Cantagrel, Stephen Hall, Piotr Leszczynski, Daniel Feldman, Madura J Rangaraj, Georgia Roane, Charles Ludivico, Min Bao, Lucy Rowell, Claire Davies, Eduardo F Mysler.
Ann Rheum Dis. 10 May 2015 doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207281 [Epub ahead of print]

Tocilizumab (TCZ) has demonstrated efficacy and a well-established safety profile for intravenous (IV) administration. The Phase III SUMMACTA study evaluated the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous tocilizumab (TCZ-SC) in combination with DMARDS in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and inadequate response to ≥1 DMARD. Patients were randomised to receive TCZ-SC 162 mg weekly or TCZ-IV 8 mg/kg q4w in combination with DMARDs. After a 24-week double-blind period, patients receiving TCZ-SC were ...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Phase 3

May 15

Evaluation of the effect of tofacitinib on measured glomerular filtration rate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: results from a randomised controlled trial

Kremer JM, Kivitz AJ, Simon-Campos JA, Nasonov EL, Tony HP, Lee SK, Vlahos B, Hammond C, Bukowski J, Li H, Schulman SL, Raber S, Zuckerman A, Isaacs JD.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2015 Apr 6;17(1):95.

Mean increases from baseline in patient serum creatinine (SCr) levels have been observed in the clinical development programme for the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib. These increases predominantly occurred within the first three months, and reversed with tofacitinib withdrawal. This phase 1, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, 2-period study assessed changes in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) with tofacitinib, relative to placebo, in 148 patients with active RA. Results sh...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Tofacitinib, an oral Janus kinase inhibitor: analysis of malignancies across the rheumatoid arthritis clinical development programme

Curtis JR, Lee EB, Kaplan IV, Kwok K, Geier J, Benda B, Soma K, Wang L, Riese R.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Apr 22. pii: annrheumdis-2014-205847. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-205847. [Epub ahead of print]

The developments of certain malignancies associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as RA is known to occur to a greater extent than that of the general population. It is also know that certain RA treatments can affect malignancy rates. As such, newer immunomodulatory agents, such as the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib, are closely monitored for safety events of special interest, including malignancies. This paper analyses pooled malignancy data from the tofacitinib RA clinical development...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Malignancy

April 15

The effect of tofacitinib on pneumococcal and influenza vaccine responses in rheumatoid arthritis

Winthrop KL, Silverfield J, Racewicz A, Neal J, Lee EB, Hrycaj P, Gomez-Reino J, Soma K, Mebus C, Wilkinson B, Hodge J, Fan H, Wang T, Bingham CO 3rd.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 Mar 20. pii: annrheumdis-2014-207191. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-207191. [Epub ahead of print]

The increased risk of serious infection among RA patients means vaccinations against pneumococcus and influenza are recommended in this group of patients. Studies evaluating immune response to these vaccines in conjunction with DMARD therapy can provide clinicians with important information relating to things such as timing of vaccination. This study aimed to assess the effect of tofacitinib on vaccine responses to PPSV-23 and the trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine in those whom tofacitinib...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

March 15

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Twelve-Week, Dose-Ranging Study of Decernotinib, an Oral Selective JAK-3 Inhibitor, as Monotherapy in Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Fleischmann RM, Damjanov NS, Kivitz AJ, et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67(2):334–343.

Decernotinib (VX-509; Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated) is a JAK 3 inhibitor currently under investigation for its potential use in the treatment of RA. The potency and selectivity profiles of this oral compound have already been established in previous trials, so this study aimed to establish the efficacy and safety profiles of the drug, in RA patients who have had an inadequate response to at least one DMARD. Four doses; 25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg, were evaluated in this placebo-contr...

Keywords: JAK, Decernotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

January 15

Efficacy and Safety of Tofacitinib as Monotherapy in Japanese Patients With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: A 12-Week, Randomized, Phase 2 Study

Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T, Yamanaka H, Nakamura H, Toyoizumi S, Zwillich S.
Mod Rheumatol. 2014 Dec 11:1–25. [Epub ahead of print]

In Japan, the biologic DMARDs infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab and certolizumab pegol, as well as tocilizumab and abatacept are approved for use in patients with active RA and an inadequate response to existing therapies. However, not all patients respond to these therapies adequately, creating an unmet need for therapeutic options with alternative mechanisms of action. The oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib has demonstrated efficacy as monotherapy or in combination with DMARDs for th...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of baricitinib, an oral JAK 1/2 inhibitor, in healthy volunteers

Shi JG, Chen X, Lee F, Emm T, Scherle PA, Lo Y, Punwani N, Williams WV, Yeleswaram S.
Mod J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;54(12):1354-61. doi: 10.1002/jcph.354.

Current biologic therapies for RA, such as biologic cytokine inhibitors, which selectively target inflammatory molecules with an exquisite degree of specificity, are not clinically effective in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis. As such, there remains an unmet clinical need for more effective and better tolerated therapies. Baricitinib (LY3009104, also previously known as INCB028050) is a potent and selective small molecule inhibitor of JAK1/2, which play an important role in cytokine signa...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

December 14

Safety and efficacy of baricitinib at 24 weeks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to methotrexate

Keystone EC, Taylor PC, Drescher E, Schlichting DE, Beattie SD, Berclaz PY, Lee CH, Fidelus-Gort RK, Luchi ME, Rooney TP, Macias WL, Genovese MC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74(2):333–340

Recent innovations in the treatment of RA have focused on the use of small molecules to inhibit intracellular kinases such as the JAK family. Baricitinib (LY3009104, formerly INCB028050) is an orally administered, potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2, which has shown anti-inflammatory effects, as well as preservation of cartilage and bone, in preclinical rodent studies. This phase IIb study was designed to investigate multiple doses and dosing regimens of baricitinib, fo...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses synovial JAK1-STAT signalling in rheumatoid arthritis

Boyle DL, Soma K, Hodge J, Kavanaugh A, Mandel D, Mease P, Shurmur R, Singhal AK, Wei N, Rosengren S, Kaplan I, Krishnaswami S, Luo Z, Bradley J, Firestein GS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Nov 14. pii: annrheumdis-2014-206028. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206028. [Epub ahead of print]

Targeting intracellular pathways such as JAK/STAT represents a novel approach to the treatment of RA. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor, proven to be effective in the treatment of RA, yet the pathways affected by tofacitinib and the effects on gene expression in situ are unknown. In this study, Boyle et al. tested the hypothesis that tofacitinib targets cytokine signalling critical to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid synovitis by investigating tofacitinib effects on synovial pathobiology. A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

August 14

Analysis of Infections and All-Cause Mortality in Phase II, III and Long-Term Extension Studies of Tofacitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Cohen S, Radominski SC, Gomez-Reino JJ, et al.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66(11):2924–2937

This study pools data from the global tofacitinib RA development programme (phase II, phase III and long-term extension studies) to determine the rate of infections and all-cause mortality with tofacitinib treatment. In total, 4,789 patients within these studies received tofacitinib, at varying doses and with varying duration. The overall incidence rate of serious infections was 3.09 events/100 patient-years (95% CI 2.73–3.49), which was stable over time, with pneumonia and skin and s...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

July 14

Tofacitinib Versus Methotrexate In Rheumatoid Arthritis

Lee EB, Fleischmann R, Hall S, et al.
N Engl J Med. 2014;370(25):2377–2386.

ORAL Start is the latest trial to be reported in the tofacitinib clinical development programme. It compares the use of tofacitinib monotherapy to MTX monotherapy, in RA patients who have had either no or a sub-therapeutic dose of MTX in the past. Nine hundred and fifty eight patients received either tofacitinib (5 mg or 10 mg) twice daily, or methotrexate at a dose that was incrementally increased to 20 mg per week over 8 weeks. The co primary efficacy endpoints were ACR 70 response, and mean c...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

May 14

Safety and Efficacy of Tofacitinib, an Oral Janus Kinse Inhibitor, for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, in Open-Label Longterm Extension Studies

Wollenhaupt J, SIlverfield J, Lee Eb et al.
J Rheumatol 2014;41;837-852

This study pooled data from two LTE studies involving patients who had previously participated in qualifying phase I, II and III studies. Data up to 60 months was included for safety aspects and efficacy data up to 48 months. However data for 10 mg BID and tofacitinib monotherapy was limited after 24 and 36 months respectively. Over the two studies, 4102 patients were treated for a total of 5963 patient years. Herpes zoster, both serious and non-serious, had a higher incidence rate in tofacitini...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

August 13

The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib for active rheumatoid arthritis: results from phase III trials

Salgado E & Gomez-Reino JJ.
International Journal of Clinical Rheumatology June 2013; 8(3):311–13

The tofacitinib ORAL research program involves six phase 3 trials (Standard, Solo, Step, Scan, Sync and Start) to assess the safety and efficacy of tofacitinib 5 and 10 mg twice daily as monotherapy, or with either background MTX or traditional DMARD therapy. This report by Salgado et al. provides an overall analysis of the each of the study designs and the clinical results to date. The results show that tofacitinib effectively controlled the signs and symptoms of RA across a range of patient po...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

June 13

An Oral Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) Inhibitor for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Weinblatt ME, Kavanaugh A, Genovese MC, et al.
The New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 363(14):1303-12

This is the first phase 2 study to be published for spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor R788 (fostamatinib). This phase 2 study ingestigated the efficacy and safety of fostamatinib in patients with active RA despite long-term treatment with methotrexate. In this 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomised to receive two doses of R788 (100 mg twice daily or 150 mg once daily) or placebo once or twice daily. Significantly more patients on R788 achieved ACR 20 respo...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Clinical, Phase 2

An oral Syk kinase inhibitor in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a three-month randomized, placebo-controlled, phase II study in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis that did not respond to biologic agents

Genovese MC, Kavanaugh A, Weinblatt ME, et al.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 2011; 63(2):337-45

This was the first phase 2 study to be published investigating the efficacy and safety of the spleen kinase (Syk) inhibitor R788 (fostamatinib) in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month trial, patients with active RA on stable background treatment (excluding biologics) were randomised to receive 100 mg R788 or placebo twice daily. Differences in ACR20 responses were significant at week 6 (p=0.003), but not th...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Clinical, Phase 2

A phase IIb dose-ranging study of the oral JAK inhibitor tofacitinib (CP-690,550) versus placebo in combination with background methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate alone

Kremer JM, Cohen S, Wilkinson BE, et al.
Arthritis & Rheumatism 2012; 64(4):970-81

This study was one of two 24-week, phase 2b studies undertaken to characterise the efficacy and safety dose-response profile of the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. Six doses of tofacitinib (20 mg daily and 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 mg twice daily) and placebo were compared as add-on therapy in adults with active RA despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. At week 12, ACR 20 response rates were significantly higher with all tofacitinib doses than with placebo (tofacitinib 45.7–58.1%...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Tofacitinib (CP-690,550) in combination with methotrexate in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: a randomised phase 3 trial

Burmester GR, Blanco R, Charles-Schoeman C, et al.
The Lancet 2013; 381(9865):451-60

The ORAL Step trial is one of six studies conducted as part of the phase 3 research programme for the oral Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor tofacitinib. This 6-month, double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 study investigated the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in adults with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. Patients were randomised to 5 or 10 mg tofacitinib twice daily or placebo, which was switched to tofaciti...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Open-label tofacitinib and double-blind atorvastatin in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomised study

McInnes IB, Ho-Youn K, Sang-Heon L, et al.
Annals of Rheumatic Diseases 2013; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2012-202442

This randomised, placebo-controlled, multicentre phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin versus placebo in modifying lipids in 111 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving tofacitinib. All patients took tofacitinib 10 mg twice daily for 12 weeks, and after the first 6 weeks patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either atorvastatin 10 mg once daily (n=50) or matched placebo (n=48) in a double-blind phase for a further 6 weeks. Tofacitinib-induced elevatio...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 2