Cytokine networks—towards new therapies for rheumatoid arthritis
This review describes cytokines and the cytokine network in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It also discusses how therapies that target cytokines may be feasible and efficacious treatments option for RA. Various targets are considered including blockade of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), as well as the targeting of cytokines that play a central role in immune regulation and tissue matrix destruction such as IL-6, IL-15, interferon-gamma (IFN-?), IL-17, IL-18, IL-12, and IL-23. The preclinical as well as the clinical development of some of these targets is reviewed. Also considered are adipokines, the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor superfamily members including RANKL. It is hoped that some of these targets will become future therapies in RA.