Cytokine Signalling Forum


January 16

Cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis – shaping the immunological landscape

McInnes I, Buckley C, Isaacs J.
Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2016 Jan;12(1):63-8

Cytokine-mediated pathways are central to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and there has been great advances in understanding and clinical application in the last 20 years. McInnes and colleagues provide a timely and succinct overview the roles of cytokine families in the various phases and tissue compartments of this disease. They particularly review the combinatorial role played by cytokines in mediating the overlapping innate and adaptive immune responses associated with disease onset...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

June 13

Physiology of cytokine pathways in rheumatoid arthritis

Arend WP.
Arthritis Care & Research 2001; 45(1):101-6

This review from 2001 describes the main cytokines involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid synovitis, and the redundant and synergistic nature of cytokine pathways in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The self-regulating nature of cytokines are explained through the actions of anti-inflammatory cytokines, opposing cytokines, cytokine receptor antagonists, and naturally occurring antibodies. The paper explains that as disease often results when an imbalance develops in the cytokine network, therap...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

Cytokine networks—towards new therapies for rheumatoid arthritis

McInnes IB, Liew FY.
Nature Clinical Practice 2005; 1(1):31-9

This review describes cytokines and the cytokine network in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It also discusses how therapies that target cytokines may be feasible and efficacious treatments option for RA. Various targets are considered including blockade of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), as well as the targeting of cytokines that play a central role in immune regulation and tissue matrix destruction such as IL-6, IL-15, interferon-gamma (IF...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

Cytokine receptor signaling through the Jak–Stat–Socs pathway in disease

O'Sullivan LA, Liongue C, Lewis RS, et al.
Molecular Immunology 2007; 44:2497-506

This review from 2007 provides an overview of the largest cytokine receptor family, the haematopoietin receptors, as well as other key components involved in one of the major cytokine signalling pathways implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This includes the Janus kinases (Jaks), signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stats) and suppressors of cytokine signalling genes (Socs). Essentially, when a cytokine binds to a receptor from this group a functional cytokine recep...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

Cytokines in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

McInnes IB, Schett G.
Nature Reviews Immunology 2007; 7:429-42

The imbalance between the activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines favouring induction of autoimmunity, chronic inflammation and joint damage is well known, but how cytokines are organised within a hierarchical regulatory network and which cytokines are the best targets for clinical intervention is uncertain. This review therefore examines the effector function of cytokines in the immunological processes central to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The paper aims to try and ...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Preclinical, MOA

Janus kinases in immune cell signaling

Ghoreschi K, Laurence A, O'Shea JJ.
Immunological Reviews 2009; 228:273-87

This review from 2009 describes the Janus Kinases (JAK) that includes JAK1, JAK2, and JAK3, a subgroup of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases. This protein family has a diverse range of functions including roles in cell growth, survival, development, and differentiation of a variety of cells, and especially immune and haematopoietic cells. Current knowledge of protein structure, regulatory mechanisms, signalling pathways and intracellular interactions for the JAK family is reviewed. The paper ...

Keywords: JAK, MOA

Intracellular Signal Pathways: Potential for Therapies

Mavers M, Ruderman EM, Perlman H.
Current Rheumatology Reports 2009; 11:378-85

With recent progress in the development of drugs targeting signalling pathways for rheumatoid arthritis, this review article from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the key intracellular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This paper also discusses some of the limitations of current drug targets including lack of clinical efficacy, potential adverse effects and cost, and highlights important issues associated with the design of target drugs...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, MOA

The pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis

McInnes IB, Schett G.
The New England Journal of Medicine 2011; 365:2205-19

This review article describes the pathogenic processes involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and discusses the genetic factors and environmental triggers implicated in the disease. Data from twin studies are discussed along with candidate genes with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been linked to RA. It is now thought a multistep progression to the development of RA occurs via environmental factors, epigenetic modification of susceptible genes that leads to altered post-transcrip...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, MOA

Small molecules targeting JAKs—a new approach in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

Feist E, Burmester GR.
Rheumatology 2013: doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kes417

This article focuses on the development of new small molecular inhibitors of Janus kinases (Jaks) in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Of these, tofacitinib is at the most advanced stage of its clinical development and this article includes an overview of the results from the main tofacitinib clinical trials to date. These include the ORAL-Start study in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve patients; ORAL-Scan in inadequate responders to MTX; ORAL-Solo and ORAL-Sync in inadequate responder...

Keywords: JAK, MOA