Cytokine Signalling Forum

Publications





September 20

Infections in Baricitinib Clinical Trials for Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis

Winthrop KL, Harigai M, Genovese MC, Lindsey S, Takeuchi T, Fleischmann R, Bradley JD, Byers NL, Hyslop DL, Issa M, Nishikawa A, Rooney TP, Witt S, Dickson CL, Smolen JS, Dougados M.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, May 2020

Baricitinib, an oral selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor,8 demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in phase 3 RA trials. Pooled data from these trials, including a long-term extension (LTE), inform the safety profile for baricitinib, mainly to evaluate the incidence of infection in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with a focus on serious infection, tuberculosis (TB), herpes zoster (HZ) and opportunistic infection (OI). The data collected were from eight double-blind randomised ...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

August 20

Efficacy and Safety of Long-Term Baricitinib With and Without Methotrexate for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Experience With Baricitinib Monotherapy Continuation or After Switching From Methotrexate Monotherapy or Baricitinib Plus Methotrexate.

Fleischmann R, Takeuchi T, Schiff M, Schlichting D, Xie L, Issa M, Stoykov I, Lisse J, Martinez-Osuna P, Rooney T, Zerbini CAF.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2020;72(8):1112-1121

This 24-week update from the baricitinib RA-BEYOND LTE study follows patients previously treated in the pivotal study RA-BEGIN. It demonstrates the maintained safety and efficacy of baricitinib monotherapy, and the effects of concurrent MTX treatment on response rates and patient reported outcomes. Previous P3 study RA-BEGIN demonstrated the superior efficacy of 4mg baricitinib compared to MTX monotherapy up to 52 weeks, with no major safety events being identified. At the end of the trial, pa...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Efficacy

June 20

Temporary Interruption of Baricitinib: Characterization of Interruptions and Effect on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

Emery P, Tanaka Y, Cardillo T, Schlichting D, Rooney T, Beattie S, Helt C, Smolen JS.
Arth Res Ther 2020;22:115 doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02199-8

This study aimed to characterize temporary interruptions of baricitinib and describe their impact on efficacy and safety. Brief interruptions during phase 3 baricitinib trials were associated with minor increases in symptoms which were resolved following treatment. In life-long, chronic conditions such as RA, interruption of therapy is common for various reasons, such as side effects, non-compliance, or because a patient requires surgery. Concerns have been raised that these treatment breaks c...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Safety Profile of Baricitinib For the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis Over a Median of 3 Years of Treatment: An Updated Integrated Safety Analysis

Genovese MC, Smolen JS, Takeuchi T, Burmester G, Brinker D, Rooney TP, Zhong J, Daojun M, Saifan C, Cardoso A, Issa M, Wu W-S, Winthrop KL.
Lancet Rheumatol 2020;2:e347–57

RA is a chronic, life-long disease requiring long-term treatment. As such, it is important to understand the long-term safety profile of DMARDs. In this analysis, baricitinib maintained a stable safety profile during long-term exposure. This baricitinib safety analysis included integrated data from nine Phase 3, 2, and 1b clinical trials, and one long-term extension, with data up to 360 weeks. 3700 patients were included, with maximum follow-up of almost 7 years – representing an additio...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Baricitinib In Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis With Inadequate Response to Methotrexate: Results From A Phase 3 Study

Li Z, Hu J, Bao C, Li X, Li X, Xu J, Spindler AJ, Zhang X, Xu J, He D, Li Z, Wang G, Yang Y, Wu H, Ji F, Tao H, Zhan L, Bai F, Rooney TP, Zerbini CAF.
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2020

This study conducted mainly in Chinese patients with RA, and an inadequate response to MTX, showed that baricitinib 4mg was associated with significant improvements and consistent with the findings from previous clinical trials. The efficacy and safety of baricitinib have been assessed in several clinical trials, predominantly in Caucasian populations. However, evidence on the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in Chinese patients is limited, with only one of the main clinical trial program stu...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

September 19

Comparison of Baricitinib, Upadacitinib, and Tofacitinib Mediated Regulation of Cytokine Signalling in Human Leukocyte Subpopulations

McInnes IB, Byers NL, Higgs RE, Lee J, Macias WL, Na S, Ortmann RA, Rocha G, Rooney TP, Wehrman T, Zhang X, Zuckerman SH, Taylor PC.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Aug 2;21(1):183

Different JAKinibs modulated distinct cytokine pathways to varying degrees, and no agent potently or continuously inhibited an individual cytokine signalling pathway throughout the dosing interval. This study aimed to compare the in vitro cellular pharmacology of BARI, TOF and UPA across relevant leukocyte subpopulations, coupled with their in vivo PK, to determine their effects on distinct cytokine pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were incubated with differen...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Preclinical, Selectivity

July 19

Clinical Outcomes in Patients Switched from Adalimumab to Baricitinib Due to Non-Response and/or Study Design: Phase III Data in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Tanaka Y, Fautrel B, Keystone EC, Ortmann RA, Xie L, Zhu B, Issa M, Patel H, Gaich CL, de Bono S, Rooney TP, Taylor PC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Jul;78(7):890-898.

Switching from ADA to BARI without a lengthy washout period can be executed with acceptable safety and tolerability and was associated with maintained disease control. Switching therapies in RA is commonplace in myriad scenarios including inadequate responses, intolerances and patient preference. Assessing the safety and efficacy of new treatments such as BARI, in the context of use as a replacement therapy, is beneficial. A previous study (RA-BEACON) has demonstrated that safely switching fro...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

March 19

Safety Profile of Baricitinib in Japanese Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis with Over 1.6 Years Median Time in Treatment: An Integrated Analysis of Phase 2 and 3 Trials

Harigai M, Takeuchi T, Smolen JS, Winthrop KL, Nishikawa A, Rooney TP, Saifan CG, Issa M, Isaka Y, Akashi N, Ishii T, Tanaka Y.
Mod Rheumatol. 2019 Feb 20:1-23. DOI: 10.1080/14397595.2019.1583711

In this integrated analysis, BARI showed an acceptable safety profile in Japanese patients with up to 3.2 years of exposure. Other than incidences of herpes zoster (HZ), no major differences were noted with BARI safety in Japanese patients with RA, compared to the patients in the integrated database. BARI has previously demonstrated significant clinical efficacy and acceptable safety. Japanese patients who participated in the BARI clinical development programme, were comparable to those from th...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

February 19

Cardiovascular Safety During Treatment with Baricitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Taylor PC, Weinblatt ME, Burmester GR, Rooney TP, Witt S, Walls CD, Issa M, Salinas CA, Saifan C, Zhang X, Cardoso A, González-Gay MA, Takeuchi T.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jul;71(7):1042-1055.

This study indicates no association between exposure to BARI and MACE, arterial thrombotic events (ATE), or congestive heart failure (CHF). Overall IRs for venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in BARI-treated patients falls within the reported range for patients with RA. RA patients have a greater risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases of arterial ischemic origin, and an increased risk of VTE. Studied frequencies of thromboembolic events in RA populations in the last decade has been reported as 2&nd...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

January 19

Characterization and Changes of Lymphocyte Subsets in Baricitinib-Treated Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Integrated Analysis.

Tanaka Y, McInnes IB, Taylor PC, Byers NL, Chen L, de Bono S, Issa M, Macias WL, Rogai V, Rooney TP, Schlichting DE, Zuckerman SH, Emery P.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Dec;70(12):1923-1932. doi: 10.1002/art.40680

This review shows that changes in lymphocyte subsets were largely within normal reference ranges and were not associated with efficacy or safety end points. BARI is a selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of moderate to severe RA. BARI treatment is associated with changes to circulating lymphocyte and lymphocyte subsets, however detailed analyses of these effects, and their relevance to efficacy and safety is lacking. This study investigated the changes in lymphocyte cell s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

October 18

Dose Reduction of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Achieving Sustained Disease Control: Results of a Prospective Study

Takeuchi T, Genovese MC, Haraoui B, Li Z, Xie L, Klar R, Pinto Correia A, Otawa S, Lopez-Romero P, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Feb;78(2):171-178. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213271

In active RA patients, with an inadequate response (IR) to DMARDs who achieve low disease activity (LDA) following baricitinib (BARI) 4 mg treatment, disease control is better maintained with continued BARI 4 mg compared to tapering to 2 mg. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of BARI tapering in patients achieving sustained disease control with BARI 4 mg. In the long-term extension study RA-BEYOND, patients receiving BARI 4 mg who achieved sustained LDA or remission at two...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Safety Profile of Baricitinib in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis with over 2 Years Median Time in Treatment

Smolen J, Genovese M, Takeuchi T, Hyslop D, Macias W, Rooney T, Chen L, Dickson C, Riddle Camp J, Cardillo T, Ishii T and Winthrop K.
J Rheumatol. 2019 Jan;46(1):7-18. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.171361

Baricitinib (BARI) showed an acceptable 5.5-year safety profile in this integrated analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe, active RA. This study evaluated the safety profile of the oral, once daily Janus kinase inhibitor, BARI, in adults with moderately to severely active RA. Data from eight randomised clinical trials and one long-term extension study were pooled and analysed for placebo comparison and dose response. There were 3492 patients who received BARI for a total of 6637 patient-y...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

September 18

Lipid Profile and Effect of Statin Treatment in Pooled Phase II and Phase III Baricitinib Studies

Taylor PC, Kremer JM, Emery P, Zuckerman SH, Ruotolo G, Zhong J, Chen L, Witt S, Saifan C, Kurzawa M, Otvos JD, Connelly MA, Macias WL, Schlichting DE, Rooney TP, de Bono S, McInnes IB.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jul;77(7):988-995. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212461

Baricitinib (BARI) was associated with increased lipid levels; baseline statins did not alter these profiles. The introduction of statins during treatment reduced total cholesterol and LDL-C. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in RA patients has been shown to alter lipid levels and is associated with reduced atherogenic risk. Increases in lipid levels, specifically HDL-C and LDL-C, have been observed in Phase 2 BARI studies1. This study analysed data from seven randomised RA Phase 2/3 studies o...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Real World, Cardiovascular

June 18

Effects of Baricitinib on Radiographic Progression of Structural Joint Damage at 1 year in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and an Inadequate Response to Conventional Synthetic Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drugs

van der Heijde D, Dougados M, Chen YC, Greenwald M, Drescher E, Klar R, Xie L, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Witt SL, Schlichting DE, de Bono S, Emery P.
RMD Open. 2018 May 8;4(1):e000662. DOI: 10.1136/rmdopen-2018-000662

Once daily baricitinib (BARI) inhibited radiographic progression of structural joint damage in patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to csDMARDs over 48 weeks. Current treatment goals aim to use DMARDs to inhibit structural joint damage and prevent long-term functional disability. In RA-BUILD¹, BARI was shown to significantly reduce radiographic joint damage progression in patients with active RA, with an intolerance or inadequate response to csDMARDs. Here, the authors repor...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Radiographic

March 18

Response to Baricitinib based on Prior Biologic Use in Patients with Refractory Arthritis

Genovese MC, Kremer JM, Kartman CE, Schlichting DE, Xie L, Carmack T, Pantojas C, Burston JS, Tony HP, Macias WL, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2018 May; 57(5):900-908

Baricitinib (BARI) 2 or 4 mg had a beneficial treatment effect on patients with moderate to severe RA compared with placebo (PBO), irrespective of the number or nature of prior patient bDMARD use. The current therapeutic target for patients with established RA is low disease activity, but many patients fail to achieve this due to inadequate responses to DMARD therapies. With this patient population growing, therapies for these patients are considered one of the greatest unmet needs in RA. This...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

October 17

Patient-reported Outcomes of Baricitinib in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and No or Limited Prior Disease-modifying Antirheumatic Drug Treatment

Schiff M, Takeuchi T, Fleischmann R, Gaich CL, DeLozier AM, Schlichting D, Kuo W, Won J, Carmack T, Rooney T, Durez P, Shaikh S, Hidalgo RP, van Vollenhoven R, Zerbini C.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2017 Sep 18;19(1):208

RA-BEGIN was a Phase 3, double-blind randomised active comparator-controlled study to evaluate baricitinib as monotherapy or in combination with MTX in patients with active RA who were naïve to csDMARDS and bDMARDS. In this analysis of the RA-BEGIN study, baricitinib alone or with MTX when used as initial therapy resulted in significant improvements in most patient-reported outcome measures compared with MTX. At baseline, study participants had active RA, impaired physical function, mode...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, PRO

September 17

Patient-reported Outcomes from a Phase 3 Study of Baricitinib versus Placebo or Adalimumab in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Secondary Analyses from the RA-BEAM Study

Keystone EC, Taylor PC, Tanaka Y, Gaich C, DeLozier AM, Dudek A, Velasco Zamora J, Covarrubias Cobos JA, Rooney T, de Bono S, Arora V, Linetzky B, Weinblatt ME.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76(11):1853-1861. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-211259

This paper describes the patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collected in RA-BEAM, a Phase 3 study of baricitinib compared with both placebo and adalimumab in patients with RA and an inadequate response to MTX. PRO measures evaluated include health-related quality of life (HRQOL), physical function, disability, fatigue, sleep, mental health status, work productivity and work activity impairment. The RA-BEAM study demonstrated that patients treated with baricitinib experienced a greater impro...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, PRO

Safety and Efficacy of Baricitinib through 128 Weeks in an Open-label, Longterm Extension Study in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

Keystone EC, Genovese MC, Schlichting DE, de la Torre I, Beattie SD, Rooney TP, Taylor PC.
J Rheumatol. 2018 Jan;45(1):14-21. doi: 10.3899/jrheum.161161

This open-label extension (OLE) of a Phase 2b randomised controlled trial (RCT) found that safety data collected over 2 years of treatment were generally consistent with previous findings for baricitinib in RA. In the RCT, baricitinib demonstrated significant improvement in disease activity compared with placebo and an acceptable safety profile in patients with RA and an inadequate response to MTX. Patients who completed the 24-week double-blind period of the study were eligible for the OLE. Ra...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2

February 17

Baricitinib in Patients with Inadequate Response or Intolerance to Conventional Synthetic DMARDs: Results from the RA-BUILD Study

Dougados M, van der Heijde D, Chen Y-C, Greenwald M, Drescher E, Liu J, Beattie S, Witt S, de la Torre I, Gaich C, Rooney T, Schlichting D, de Bono S, Emery P.
Ann Rheum Dis 2017;76:88–95.

Baricitinib improved symptoms of RA in the RA-BUILD trial, a Phase 3 study of baricitinib in patients with moderately to severely active RA, refractory to or intolerant to csDMARDs. As well as providing a short-term (24 weeks) benefit, there appeared to be joint damage benefit, considered a marker of long-term disability. RA-BUILD was a 24-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel-group study. Patients were randomised 1:1:1 to receive once-daily doses of placebo (n=228) or bari...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

December 16

Baricitinib, Methotrexate, or Combination in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and no or Limited Prior Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drug Treatment

Fleischmann F, Schiff M, van der Heijde D, Ramos-Remus C, Spindler A, Stanislav M, Zerbini CAF, Gurbuz S, Dickson C, de Bono S, Schlichting D, Beattie S, Kuo W-L, Rooney T, Macias W, Takeuchi T.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2016. DOI 10.1002/art.39953. Accepted article

In this 52-week study of patients receiving initial therapy for RA, baricitinib alone or in combination with MTX demonstrated superior efficacy compared with MTX alone. Patients naïve to csDMARD (no or <3 doses of MTX) or bDMARD were randomised 4:3:4 (N=588) to MTX QW, baricitinib 4 mg QD or baricitinib 4 mg QD + MTX QW. The primary endpoint assessment was noninferiority of baricitinib monotherapy to MTX based on ACR20 response at Week 24. Not only was the primary endpoint met, baricit...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

December 14

Safety and efficacy of baricitinib at 24 weeks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to methotrexate

Keystone EC, Taylor PC, Drescher E, Schlichting DE, Beattie SD, Berclaz PY, Lee CH, Fidelus-Gort RK, Luchi ME, Rooney TP, Macias WL, Genovese MC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74(2):333–340

Recent innovations in the treatment of RA have focused on the use of small molecules to inhibit intracellular kinases such as the JAK family. Baricitinib (LY3009104, formerly INCB028050) is an orally administered, potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2, which has shown anti-inflammatory effects, as well as preservation of cartilage and bone, in preclinical rodent studies. This phase IIb study was designed to investigate multiple doses and dosing regimens of baricitinib, fo...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 2