Cytokine Signalling Forum

Publications





May 22

A retrospective study of the efficacy of JAK inhibitors or abatacept on rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease

Tardella M, Di Carlo M, Carotti M, Ceccarelli L, Giovagnoni A, Salaffi F.
Inflammopharmacology. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1007/s10787-022-00936-w

This study of the effectiveness of JAKinibs or abatacept in patients with RA-interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD) shows that treatment is related to stability or improvement of RA-ILD in over 80% of patients. Often associated with a worse prognosis and mortality, pulmonary involvement in RA has been the subject of increasing interest in recent years, with RA-ILD occurring in up to 67% of patients. However, little information and limited clinical data can make the treatment and management of RA-IL...

Two Phase 3 Trials of Baricitinib for Alopecia Areata

King B, Ohyama M, Kwon O, Zlotogorski A, Ko J, Mesinkovska NA, Hordinsky M, Dutronc Y, Wu WS, McCollam J, Chiasserini C, Yu G, Stanley S, Holzwarth K, DeLozier AM, Sinclair R, BRAVE-AA Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2110343

Phase 3 trials in patients with severe alopecia areata show that baricitinib is superior to placebo with respect to hair regrowth at 36 weeks. Alopecia areata is characterised by nonscarring hair loss that can affect any hair-bearing site. Although mild cases of this emotionally- and psychosocially-distressing autoimmune disease may resolve within 12 months, more severe forms of the disease are unlikely to remit without treatment. Due to the involvement of cytokines in the pathogenesis of a...

Single Slide Summaries – May 2022

Multiple Authors – please see slide deck for more information.
Multiple References – please see slide deck for more information

The impact of tofacitinib on fatigue, sleep, and health‑related quality of life in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a post hoc analysis of data from Phase 3 trials

Bartlett SJ, Bingham CO, van Vollenhoven R, Murray C, Gruben D, Gold DA, Cella D.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2022;24(1):83 doi: 10.1186/s13075-022-02724-x

This was an exploratory post hoc analysis of pooled data, from over 2000 patients in three Phase 3 studies of tofacitinib, which demonstrates an association between tofacitinib treatment and significantly greater improvements in fatigue, sleep, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), compared with placebo. Affecting a large majority of patients with RA, fatigue is a common symptom of the disease and is detrimental to HRQoL. However, the clinical significance of this overwhelming, unpredicta...

April 22

Achieving pain control in early rheumatoid arthritis with baricitinib monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate versus methotrexate monotherapy

Taylor PC, Alten R, Álvaro Gracia JM, Kaneko Y, Walls C, Quebe A, Jia B, Bello N, Terres JR, Fleischmann R.
RMD Open. 2022;8(1):e001994 doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2021-001994

Post hoc analysis of the RA-BEGIN trial finds that, over a one-year period, patients treated with baricitinib (monotherapy or in combination with methotrexate [MTX]) report greater pain relief and a more rapid attainment of clinically meaningful thresholds of pain improvement, than patients who receive MTX monotherapy. Often overlooked, when treating RA solely to a disease activity target, patient-reported pain is common in RA, even in those reaching inflammatory remission. The fact that pain pe...

Oral surveillance and JAK inhibitor safety: �the theory of relativity

Winthrop KL, Cohen SB.
Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1038/s41584-022-00767-7

Putting the data into context, Winthrop, et al. conclude that the ORAL Surveillance data are not dissimilar to those from the original developmental programme, which suggested additional safety concerns at the 10 mg dosage and that resulted in the 5 mg twice daily dosage as the approved dose for RA. Following the recent results of the ORAL Surveillance (ORALSURV) study, and the consequent changes to the utilisation of JAKinibs, made by the regulatory authorities, Winthrop, et al. aim to put the ...

Evaluation of response to 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving upadacitinib: results from a phase 2 open-label extension study

Winthrop K, Vargas JI, Drescher E, Garcia C, Friedman A, Hendrickson B, Li Y, Klaff J, Kivitz A.
RMD Open. 2022;8(1):e002110 doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2021-002110

Vaccine sub-study of the BALANCE-EXTEND upadacitinib trial finds that approximately two-thirds of patients receiving upadacitinib 15 mg once-daily achieve a satisfactory humoral response to pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate (PCV-13) vaccine, despite receiving concomitant methotrexate (MTX). It is well known that a weakened immune response, comorbidities and immunosuppressant drug therapy all contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections in patients with RA. Likewise, the morbidity and m...

March 22

The effect of secukinumab on patient-reported outcomes in patients with active psoriatic arthritis in a randomised phase 3 trial

Strand V, Kaeley GS, Bergman MJ, Gladman DD, Coates LC, Sherif B, Hur P, Parikh B, Gilloteau I, Mease PJ.
Lancet. 2022. Epub ahead of print

Predefined analysis of FUTURE 5, the largest Phase 3 randomised trial of secukinumab in patients with PsA to date, demonstrates that secukinumab results in early, statistically significant, clinically meaningful, sustained improvements in PROs across all doses, compared with placebo. The fully human anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody, secukinumab has shown clinical and radiographical efficacy in patients with PsA, yet the clinical significance of improvements across a wide variety of PROs...

Baricitinib further enhances disease-modifying effects by uncoupling the link between disease activity and joint structural progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Lopez-Romero P, de la Torre I, Haladyj E, Aletaha D, Smolen JS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221323

Baricitinib reduces structural damage progression versus placebo with background MTX and/or MTX, even in patients with moderate or high disease activity. In patients with RA, TNFi, IL-6i and rituximab have been shown to uncouple the link between disease activity and radiographic progression such that patients are protected from structural damage progression even if remission/low disease activity is not achieved. As such, Lopez-Romero, et al. aimed to evaluate if baricitinib further enhances di...

Long-term safety and efficacy of upadacitinib or adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results through 3 years from the SELECT-COMPARE study

Fleischmann R, Mysler E, Bessette L, Peterfy CG, Durez P, Tanaka Y, Swierkot J, Khan N, Bu X, Li Y, Song IH.
RMD Open. 2022;8(1):e002012 doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2021-002012

Upadacitinib continues to show consistently better clinical responses, compared with adalimumab, through 3 years, including rates of remission and low disease activity, physical function and pain severity. Following the favourable upadacitinib efficacy data seen in the SELECT-COMPARE study at 72 weeks, Fleischmann, et al. assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of upadacitinib versus adalimumab over 3 years in the long-term extension of this study, with promising results.

Effectiveness of baricitinib and tofacitinib compared with bDMARDs in RA: results from a cohort study using nationwide Swedish register data

Barbulescu A, Askling J, Chatzidionysiou K, Forsblad-d'Elia H, Kastbom A, Lindström U, Turesson C, Frisell T.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keac068

Data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register and Swedish Registries, show a higher treatment retention and overall equivalent or better treatment response on baricitinib, compared with bDMARDs or tofacitinib, but no statistically significant differences between tofacitinib and bDMARDs. In this largest population-based study to date, comparing RA patients initiating baricitinib, tofacitinib or bDMARDs, Barbulescu, et al. help to fill some of the current knowledge gaps surrounding the effic...

February 22

Janus kinase-targeting therapies in rheumatology: a mechanisms-based approach

Tanaka Y, Luo Y, O'Shea JJ, Nakayamada S.
Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2022 Jan 5:1–13. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1038/s41584-021-00726-8

The development of targeted small-molecule therapies such as JAK inhibitors, which have varied selective inhibitory profiles, has enabled a paradigm shift in the treatment of diverse disorders, to the extent that they could ultimately enable either complete withdrawal or avoidance of glucocorticoid use in some autoimmune diseases, and could have the potential to regulate any active factor inhibiting the transition to cure. In this review paper, Tanaka, et al. describe the progress in JAK-targeti...

Effect of dose adjustments on the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a post hoc analysis of an open-label, long-term extension study (ORAL Sequel)

Mueller RB, Schulze-Koops H, Furst DE, Cohen SB, Kwok K, Wang L, Killeen T, von Kempis J.
Clin Rheumatol. 2022 Jan 1. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1007/s10067-021-05908-z

Post-hoc analysis shows that dosing up from tofacitinib 5 to 10 mg BID is associated with improved efficacy for up to 12 months, versus staying on 5 mg BID, and dosing down from 10 to 5 mg BID is not generally associated with a significant loss of efficacy. Although clinical trials have generally shown no significant differences, in terms of efficacy and safety, when switching tofacitinib dose up or down, these per-protocol switches are not directly informative for clinical decision-making in da...

Effect of JAK inhibitors on high- and low-density lipoprotein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Li N, Gou ZP, Du SQ, Zhu XH, Lin H, Liang XF, Wang YS, Feng P.
Clin Rheumatol. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1007/s10067-021-06003-z

Systematic review and network meta-analysis highlight that RA patients who receive recommended doses of the five approved JAK inhibitors (tofacitinib, baricitinib, upadacitinib, filgotinib, and peficitinib) are likely to experience an increase in serum low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels. JAK inhibitors have been associated with alterations in levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol, which may lead to dyslipidaemia (an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease). However, the...

Tofacitinib and risk of cardiovascular outcomes: results from the Safety of Tofacitinib in Routine care patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (STAR-RA) study

Khosrow-Khavar F, Kim SC, Lee H, Lee SB, Desai RJ.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2022 Jan 13. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221915

Real-world evidence finds no increased risk of CV outcomes with tofacitinib, in comparison with TNFi, in patients with RA. However, an elevated risk of CV outcomes cannot be ruled out in patients with CV risk factors or history of CVD. Recent post-marketing findings from the ‘ORAL Surveillance’ trial have raised concerns that tofacitinib, in comparison with TNFi, may increase the risk of CV disease in patients with RA who are at least 50 years of age and with at least one risk factor...

Cardiovascular and Cancer Risk With Tofacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ytterberg SR, Bhatt DL, Mikuls TR, Koch GG, Fleischmann R, Rivas JL, Germino R, Menon S, Sun Y, Wang C, Shapiro AB, Kanik KS, Connell CA.
N Engl J Med 2022;386:316–26.

In this paper, Ytterberg et al. compare incidence of MACE and cancers (excluding NMSC) with tofacitinib 5 mg BID, tofacitinib 10 mg BID and TNFi. They found that risk of MACE and cancer were higher with tofacitinib versus TNFi, and did not meet noninferiority criteria. This prospective head-to-head safety trial compared tofacitinib to TNFi, and was required by the FDA after increases in lipid levels and cancers were observed during tofacitinib drug development.

January 22

Clinical Management of Herpes Zoster in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis or Psoriatic Arthritis Receiving Tofacitinib Treatment

Winthrop KL, Curtis JR, Yamaoka K, Lee EB, Hirose T, Rivas JL, Kwok K, Burmester GR.
Rheumatol Ther. 2021. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1007/s40744-021-00390-0

This post hoc analysis provides the first detailed description of the management and outcomes of HZ events in tofacitinib RA and PsA clinical studies. While prior studies have characterised the increased HZ risk with JAKinibs, the clinical management of these events has not been detailed. To this end, Winthrop, et al. analysed data from 21 RA and 3 PsA clinical studies to evaluate how HZ events and their sequelae were clinically managed during the RA and PsA tofacitinib clinical development pr...

Pain Reduction in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Who Use Opioids: A Post Hoc Analysis of Phase 3 Trials of Baricitinib

Pope JE, Lee YC, Curtis JR, Mo D, Xie L, Dickson CL, Schlichting DE, Cardoso A, Simon LS, Taylor PC.
ACR Open Rheumatol. 2021. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/acr2.11380

This post hoc analysis shows that pain reduction was similar between opioid users and nonusers with baricitinib 2 mg and 4 mg, but not adalimumab. Use of opioids to treat RA-related pain has increased, yet long-term use has been associated with reduced efficacy and safety concerns. In addition, the misuse of opioids has resulted in a public health crisis in the United States and highlights the need for safe, effective nonaddictive alternatives for pain management. As such, Pope, et al. assessed...

Cytokine Signalling Forum: Single slide summaries – January 2022

Citera G \ Peterfy CG \ Pope JE \ Winthrop K L \ Bergman M \ Grimm SE \ Nash P \ Shamail GMH \ Strand V \ Uchio A.

Upadacitinib as monotherapy or in combination with background MTX was effective in inhibiting the progression of structural joint damage through Week 48 in MTX-naïve and MTX‐inadequate responder patients with RA. Recently approved in many countries for the treatment of RA, upadacitinib has been shown to significantly reduce the progression of structural joint damage in two Phase 3 studies (SELECT-EARLY and SELECT-COMPARE). In this analysis, Peterfy, et al. evaluated the progression of stru...

Incidence Rates of Interstitial Lung Disease Events in Tofacitinib-Treated Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

Citera G, Mysler E, Madariaga H, Cardiel MH, Castañeda O, Fischer A, Richette P, Chartrand S, Park JK, Strengholt S, Rivas JL, Thorat AV, Girard T, Kwok K, Wang L, Ponce de Leon D.
J Clin Rheumatol. 2021;27(8):e482–e490

This post hoc analysis of pooled data from 21 clinical trials in the tofacitinib clinical trial programme highlights the importance of identifying known risk factors of RA-interstitial lung disease (ILD) in clinical practice. Citera, et al. investigated incidence rates of ILD – an extra-articular manifestation of RA – in patients with RA, receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg BID and sort to identify potential risk factors for ILD in these patients.

December 21

Tofacitinib for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: a phase III, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

Deodhar A, Sliwinska-Stanczyk P, Xu H, Baraliakos X, Gensler LS, Fleishaker D, Wang L, Wu J, Menon S, Wang C, Dina O, Fallon L, Kanik KS, van der Heijde D.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Apr 27;80(8):1004–13.

A Phase 3 study assesses the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in adults with active AS. Deodhar, et al. found that ASAS20 and ASAS40 response rate significantly increased with tofacitinib 5 mg BID versus placebo at Week 16, with improvements maintained to Week 48. There were no new safety signals detected over the course of the study.

Integrated safety analysis of filgotinib in patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment over a median of 1.6 years

Winthrop KL, Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T, Kivitz A, Matzkies F, Genovese MC, Jiang D, Chen K, Bartok B, Jahreis A, Besuyen R, Burmester GR, Gottenberg JE.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221051

Integrated analysis evaluates the safety of filgotinib among patients with RA treated for a median of 1.6 years. Winthrop, et al. analysed data from seven trials, including long-term extension studies, and found that rates of TEAEs, grade ≥3 TEAEs, serious TEAEs and TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation were comparable for filgotinib and placebo. In addition, analysis of AEs of special interest showed a generally similar incidence for filgotinib 200 mg and 100 mg.

Tofacitinib in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, withdrawal phase 3 randomised trial

Ruperto N, Brunner HI, Synoverska O, Ting TV, Mendoza CA, Spindler A, et al.
Lancet. 2021;398(10315):1984–96

Pivotal trial data show that tofacitinib is an effective treatment in patients with polyarticular course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA). New oral therapies are particularly relevant for children and adolescents, who might prefer to avoid injections. To this end, Ruperto, et al. assessed the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib versus placebo in patients with pJIA (N=225). They observed a JIA flare rate at Week 44 of 29% and 53% for tofacitinib and placebo, respectively. Safety results were s...

November 21

Incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving upadacitinib: a pooled analysis of six phase III clinical trials

Winthrop KL, Nash P, Yamaoka K, Mysler E, Khan N, Camp HS, Song Y, Suboticki JL, Curtis JR.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220822.

JAKinibs have been linked with an increased risk of HZ in patients with RA. To this end, Winthrop, et al. evaluated data from six Phase III clinical trials to determine the incidence of HZ in the upadacitinib (UPA)-treated patients with RA and identify potential risk factors for the development of HZ in these patients. Analysis of data provides further support for the need for continued vigilance and monitoring for signs of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients receiving UPA, particularly in Asian popu...

Safety of baricitinib for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis over a median of 4.6 and up to 9.3 years of treatment: final results from long-term extension study and integrated database

Taylor PC, Takeuchi T, Burmester GR, Durez P, Smolen JS, Deberdt W, Issa M, Terres JR, Bello N, Winthrop KL.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221276.

Analysis of data from the highest level of patient exposure to baricitinib across the spectrum of the RA population demonstrates that baricitinib maintained a similar safety profile to earlier analyses, with no new safety signals identified. Using integrated data from nine randomised controlled trials, Taylor, et al. assessed the safety of baricitinib 2 mg and 4 mg once-daily. Analysis of data from 3770 patients (median 4.6 years, up to 9.3 years) with active RA showed that baricitinib maintaine...

A review of JAK-STAT signalling in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis and the role of JAK inhibition

McInnes IB, Szekanecz Z, McGonagle D, Maksymowych WP, Pfeil A, Lippe R, Song IH, Lertratanakul A, Sornasse T, Biljan A, Deodhar A.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021. Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab740.

JAK inhibitors are likely to become an important part of the overall treatment paradigm for spondyloarthritis (SpA). Although not fully understood, the pathogenesis of SpA is complex and thought to involve both environmental and genetic factors that together elicit a chronic inflammatory response involving the innate and adaptive immune systems. Several different cytokines, TNF, IL-17A, IL-12/23 and IL-23, which are directly/indirectly affected by JAK molecules, are involved in the pathogenesis ...

Upadacitinib in patients with psoriatic arthritis and an inadequate response to non-biological therapy: 56-week data from the phase 3 SELECT-PsA 1 study

McInnes IB, Kato K, Magrey M, Merola JF, Kishimoto M, Pacheco-Tena C, Haaland D, Chen L, Duan Y, Zueger P, Liu J, Lippe R, Pangan AL, Behrens F.
RMD Open. 2021;7(3):e001838

Analysis of data over 56 weeks shows that efficacy responses are maintained with upadacitinib 15 mg and 30 mg. Following the publication of 12-week data from the Phase III, randomised double-blind, SELECT-PsA 1 study, earlier this year, McInnes, et al. now report the 56-week efficacy and safety data of upadacitinib 15 mg and 30 mg in patients with PsA and an inadequate response to non-biological therapy Efficacy responses and inhibition of radiographic progression were maintained with upadacitin...

October 21

Radiographic progression of structural joint damage over 5 years of baricitinib treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Results from RA-BEYOND

van der Heijde D, Kartman CE, Xie L, Beattie S, Schlichting D, Mo D, Durez P, Tanaka Y, Fleischmann R.
J Rheumatol. 2021 Sep 15:jrheum.210346.

Oral baricitinib maintained lower levels of radiographic progression than initial csDMARD or placebo through 5 years in patients with active RA.It is well known that persistent joint inflammation in RA can lead to irreversible structural damage that impacts on patient physical function and quality-of-life. To this end, van der Heijde, et al. evaluated the effect of baricitinib on inhibiting radiographic progression of structural joint damage over 5 years in patients with active RA. Results from ...

Efficacy and safety of tofacitinib versus baricitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in real clinical practice: analyses with propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting

Miyazaki Y, Nakano K, Nakayamada S, Kubo S, Inoue Y, Fujino Y, Tanaka Y.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021;80(9):1130-1136

Propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting shows that efficacy may differ between tofacitinib and baricitinib. Miyazaki, et al. compared the efficacy and safety of the two JAK inhibitors in real-world clinical practice, after reduction to a minimum of the selection bias, using propensity score-based inverse probability of treatment weighting, and adjustment for confounding patient characteristics. They found that tofacitinib may be less effective in patients resistant to m...

Reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tofacitinib

Wang ST, Tseng CW, Hsu CW, Tung CH, Huang KY, Lu MC, Lai NS.
Int J Rheum Dis. 2021. Epub ahead of print

Tofacitinib could induce Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in RA patients.With previous studies having already demonstrated that RA patients using biologic agents, might experience HBV reactivation leading to acute hepatitis, hyperbilirubinemia, and death, Wang, et al. aimed to investigate HBV reactivation in patients with RA receiving tofacitinib. They found that Hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients receiving tofacitinib have a high incidence rate of HBV reactivation, which could be...

Risk of herpes zoster (shingles) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis under biologic, targeted synthetic and conventional synthetic DMARD treatment: data from the German RABBIT register

Redeker I, Albrecht K, Kekow J, Burmester GR, Braun J, Schäfer M, Zink A, Strangfeld A.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Jul 28:annrheumdis-2021-220651

A 3.6-fold increased risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with tsDMARDs, and an increased risk is associated with bDMARDs, compared with csDMARDs. It is now well known that patients with RA have an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), and that incidence rates appear to be increased with TNF and JAK inhibitors. To this end, Redeker, et al. used data from the German RABBIT Registry to compare event and incidence rates of HZ in patients with RA treated with the three different DMAR...

September 21

Efficacy and safety of filgotinib in methotrexate-naive patients with rheumatoid arthritis with poor prognostic factors: post hoc analysis of FINCH 3

Aletaha D, Westhovens R, Gaujoux-Viala C, Adami G, Matsumoto A, Bird P, Messina OD, Buch MH, Bartok B, Yin Z, Guo Y, Hendrikx T, Burmester GR.
RMD Open. 2021;7(2):e001621.

Post hoc analysis of the phase III FINCH study shows that filgotinib may be an alternative treatment option for patients with RA who have poor prognostic factors (PPFs), especially those not responding to standard treatment such as methotrexate (MTX). PPFs are associated with severe disease and risk for disease progression in patients with RA. Consequently, the 2019 EULAR management guidelines for RA recommend early treatment escalation for patients with PPFs who have inadequate response to fir...

Real‑world evaluation of effectiveness, persistence, and usage patterns of monotherapy and combination therapy tofacitinib in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in Australia

Bird P, Littlejohn G, Butcher B, Smith T, O'Sullivan C, Witcombe D, Griffiths H.
Clin Rheumatol. 2021. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1007/s10067-021-05853-x

Real-world evidence suggests that monotherapy and combination therapy tofacitinib is an effective intervention in RA with persistence and effectiveness comparable to bDMARDs. Despite recommendations from EULAR that bDMARDs and tsDMARDs be used in combination with csDMARDs for the treatment of RA, it is estimated that up to a third of patients take their medication as monotherapy. This post hoc analysis of data from the Australian OPAL study by Bird, et al. aimed to describe the real-world eff...

August 21

Contribution of a European-Prevalent Variant Near CD83 and an East Asian-Prevalent Variant Near IL17RB to Herpes Zoster Risk in Tofacitinib Treatment: Results of Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analyses

Bing N, Zhou H, Chen X, Hirose T, Kochi Y, Tsuchida Y, Ishigaki K, Sumitomo S, Fujio K, Zhang B, Valdez H, Vincent MS, Martin D, Clark JD.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021;73(7):1155–66

Genetic analysis of tofacitinib-treated subjects with RA or PsO identified multiple loci associated with increased herpes zoster (HZ) risk. It is well known that HZ risk is elevated in subjects with RA compared with the general population, and that treatment with JAK inhibitors may result in increased risks compared with TNFi and other bDMARD treatments. To this end, Bing, et al. used genome-wide association studies to identify genetic factors associated with an increased risk/faster onset of...

Real-World Comparative Effectiveness and Safety of Tofacitinib and Baricitinib in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

Iwamoto N, Sato S, Kurushima S, Michitsuji T, Nishihata S, Okamoto M, Tsuji Y, Endo Y, Shimizu T, Sumiyoshi R, Suzuki T, Okada A, Koga T, Kawashiri SY, Fujikawa K, Igawa T, Aramaki T, Ichinose K, Tamai M, Nakamura H, Mizokami A, Origuchi T, Ueki Y, Eguchi K, Kawakami A.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2021;23(1):197

In a real-world setting, tofacitinib and baricitinib have comparable continuing efficacies and safety profiles in patients with RA. It is important to determine the differences and similarities of JAK inhibitors in a real-world setting so that the optimal agent can be administered. However, until now, no published data of a direct comparison among these agents in RA have been available. With this in mind, Iwamoto, et al. compared the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib with those of baricitinib ...

Baricitinib and the Risk of Incident Interstitial Lung Disease: A Descriptive Clinical Case Report from Clinical Trials

Salvarani C, Sebastiani M, Dieude P, Garcia M, Deberdt W, Rogai V, de la Torre I, Inciarte-Mundo J, Balsa A.
Rheumatol Ther. 2021 Jun 28. DOI: 10.1007/s40744-021-00332-w

Findings from a descriptive clinical case report from clinical trials show that patients with RA, treated with baricitinib, are at low risk to developing non-infectious interstitial lung disease (ILD) during treatment. Salvarani, et al. used a descriptive, multicentric, retrospective cohort study of eight randomised trials and one long-term extension study to estimate the number of incident ILD cases reported. Their findings showed that the risk of developing non-infectious ILD during baricit...

Upadacitinib Monotherapy Improves Patient-Reported Outcomes in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From SELECT-EARLY and SELECT-MONOTHERAPY

Strand V, Tundia N, Wells A, Buch MH, Radominski SC, Camp HS, Friedman A, Suboticki JL, Dunlap K, Goldschmidt D, Bergman M.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021;60(7):3209–21

Upadacitinib treatment results in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in health-related quality of life. Strand, et al. evaluated the effect of upadacitinib monotherapy versus methotrexate (MTX) on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) in MTX-naïve and MTX-inadequate responder patients with moderately-to-severely active RA. Their research from the SELECT-EARLY and SELECT-MONOTHERAPY randomised controlled trials found that upadacitinib monotherapy resulted in clinical...

Median Time to Pain Improvement and the Impact of Baseline Pain Severity on Pain Response in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis Treated with Tofacitinib

de Vlam K, Ogdie A, Bushmakin AG, Cappelleri JC, Fleischmann R, Taylor PC, Azevedo V, Fallon L, Woolcott J, Mease PJ.
RMD Open. 2021;7(2):e001609.

Tofacitinib 5 mg twice daily provides clinically meaningful improvements in pain for patients with PsA. Reducing pain is a primary treatment concern for patients with PsA. As such, de Vlam, et al. set out to evaluate the time to pain improvement and the impact of baseline pain severity on pain response in patients with PsA receiving tofacitinib. Using data from the OPAL Broaden and OPAL Beyond trials, they discovered that clinically important improvements in pain were experienced by more patie...

July 21

Effect of janus kinase inhibitors and methotrexate combination on malignancy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Solipuram V, Mohan A, Patel R, Ni R.
Auto Immun Highlights. 2021;12(1):8.

The combination of JAK inhibitors with MTX is not associated with an increased risk of malignancy when compared to MTX alone. Although long-term studies are needed to confirm this conclusion from short-term studies. Although it is now known that patients with RA are predisposed to an increased risk of malignancy, especially malignant lymphomas, lung cancers and non-melanoma skin cancer, it remains unclear whether the combination therapy is associated with a higher risk. To this end, Solipuram...

Upadacitinib in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Biologics: 56-Week Data from the Randomized Controlled Phase 3 SELECT-PsA 2 Study

Mease PJ, Lertratanakul A, Papp KA, van den Bosch FE, Tsuji S, Dokoupilova E, Keiserman MW, Bu X, Chen L, McCaskill RM, Zueger P, McDearmon-Blondell EL, Pangan AL, Tillett W.
Rheumatol Ther. 2021;8(2):903–919

Fifty-six-week data suggest that upadacitinib could be a favourable long-term treatment option in patients with PsA who are refractory to biologic therapy. As the need for additional therapeutic agents that can effectively control disease activity continues, new data from a 56-week analysis of the oral reversible JAK1 inhibitor, upadacitinib, currently under investigation for the treatment of PsA, shows that efficacy of the drug is maintained over the duration of this study. Mease, et al. expl...

Associations of baseline use of biologic or targeted synthetic DMARDs with COVID-19 severity in rheumatoid arthritis: Results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physician registry

Sparks JA, Wallace ZS, Seet AM, Gianfrancesco MA, Izadi Z, Hyrich KL, et al.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 May 28. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-220418

Results from the COVID-19 Global Rheumatology Alliance physician registry show that people with RA using rituximab or JAKi, at COVID-19 onset, are more likely to experience poor COVID-19 outcomes, ranging from hospitalisation to death, compared with use of TNFi. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on people with RA, many of whom are treated with b/tsDMARDs. To help address some of the knowledge gaps around the influence of b/tsDMARDs on COVID-19 outcomes, Sparks, et al. a...

Comparison of the effects of baricitinib and tocilizumab on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a propensity score matching analysis

Asai S, Takahashi N, Kobayakawa T, Kaneko A, Watanabe T, Kato T, Nishiume T, Ishikawa H, Yoshioka Y, Kanayama Y, Watanabe T, Hirano Y, Hanabayashi M, Yabe Y, Yokota Y, Suzuki M, Terabe K, Ishiguro N, Imagama S, Kojima T.
Clin Rheumatol. 2021 Jun 16. DOI: 10.1007/s10067-021-05815-3

The influence of inflammation on patient global assessment (PGA) improvements differs between baricitinib and tocilizumab differs. Adequate PGA improvement remains one of the unmet needs in current RA treatment. Asai, et al. compared the effects of baricitinib and tocilizumab on disease activity in patients with RA while investigating the influence of inflammation on PGA improvement. Using data from a multicentre registry, 48 propensity-matched pairs of patients, who had been observed for long...

June 21

JAK/STAT pathway and nociceptive cytokine signalling in rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis

Crispino N, Ciccia F.
Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2021;39(3):668-675.

The JAK/STAT pathway is receiving increasing attention in modulation of nociceptive responses, given its clear role in cytokine signalling. The authors of this review speculate that JAKinibs may have an effect on the modulation of nociception and reduction of pain. Crispino N, et al. review the impact of pain in patients with rheumatic disease and the physiological basis of modulating nociceptive pain. They examine the role of cytokines in the modulation of pain and analyse current clinical JAK...

Tofacitinib versus tocilizumab in the treatment of biological-naïve or previous biological-failure patients with methotrexate-refractory active rheumatoid arthritis

Mori S, Urata Y, Yoshitama T, Ueki Y.
RMD Open. 2021;7(2):e001601.

Findings from a multicentre cohort study in Japan provide important information that is expected to aid in determining the position of tofacitinib in the treatment algorithm for RA. Mori S, et al. compared therapeutic outcomes, from real-world registries, at 12 months between tofacitinib-treated and tocilizumab-treated patients to clarify whether tofacitinib should only be considered as an option for patients who have either failed to respond to at least one bDMARD or are MTX-resistant/-intoler...

Efficacy of baricitinib in patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis with 3 years of treatment: results from a long-term study

Smolen JS, Xie L, Jia B, Taylor PC, Burmester G, Tanaka Y, Elias A, Cardoso A, Ortmann R, Walls C, Dougados M.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021;60(5):2256-2266.

Baricitinib 4mg may be considered for long-term treatment of early and refractory rheumatoid arthritis following results demonstrating efficacy and tolerability for up to 3 years. Smolen JS, et al. analysed data from two completed 52-week, phase III studies, RA-BEGIN (DMARD-naïve) and RA-BEAM (MTX-IR), and one ongoing long-term extension study (RA-BEYOND) – providing data for 148 weeks in total. Results demonstrated that the long-term maintenance of clinically relevant treatment g...

Efficacy of Long-Term Treatment with Once-Daily Baricitinib 2 mg in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: Post Hoc Analysis of Two 24-Week, Phase III, Randomized, Controlled Studies and One Long-Term Extension Study

Wells AF, Jia B, Xie L, Valenzuela GJ, Keystone EC, Li Z, Quebe AK, Griffing K, Otawa S, Haraoui B.
Wells AF, et al. Rheumatol Ther. 2021. Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1007/s40744-021-00317-9.

Analysis by Wells, et al. demonstrates long-term efficacy and tolerability of baricitinib 2 mg daily for up to 120 weeks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Using data from two completed phase III studies, RA-BEAM (csDMARD-IR patients) and RA-BEACON (TNFi-IR patients), and one ongoing long-term extension study (RA-BEYOND), results demonstrated that the long-term maintenance of clinically relevant treatment goals, including LDA, remission and normative physical function, is achievable with b...

May 21

Comparative efficacy and safety of secukinumab, ixekizumab, and tofacitinib in patients with active psoriatic arthritis showing insufficient response to tumor necrosis factor inhibitors

Song GG, Lee YH.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2021. Epub ahead of print.

Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) highlights the effectiveness of secukinumab, ixekizumab, and tofacitinib in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and an inadequate response to tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). There is a current need for therapies with alternative mechanisms of actions to DMARDs and TNFi, for the significant proportion of patients with PsA who insufficiently respond to these therapies. While RCTs for therapies such as secukinum...

Conversion of Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue to Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Fatigue Scores in Two Phase III Baricitinib Rheumatoid Arthritis Trials

Bingham CO 3rd, Bartlett SJ, Kannowski C, Sun L, DeLozier AM, Cella D.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021;73(4):481-488.

Study shows that conversions from FACIT-F to PROMIS Fatigue are feasible and applicable for RA clinical trials. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue (FACIT-F), developed for use in cancer patients, has been validated for measuring fatigue in RA, and is often the tool used in European clinical trials; with 10 out of its 13 items being relevant for patients with RA. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), developed and calibrated in th...

Assessment of radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tofacitinib in long-term studies

van der Heijde D, Landewé RBM, Wollenhaupt J, Strengholt S, Terry K, Kwok K, Wang L, Cohen S.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021;60(4):1708-1716.

Long-term evaluation of tofacitinib has found limited progression of structural damage in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib for up to 5 years. Similar results were also observed for patients receiving tofacitinib monotherapy or combination therapy for up to 3 years. It is well known that inflammation in RA leads to structural damage over time, and therapies such as DMARDS have the ability to reduce inflammation whilst inhibiting the progression of structural damage. In this study, van...

Trial of Upadacitinib and Adalimumab for Psoriatic Arthritis

McInnes IB, Anderson JK, Magrey M, Merola JF, Liu Y, Kishimoto M, Jeka S, Pacheco- Tena C, Wang X, Chen L, Zueger P, Liu J, Pangan AL, Behrens F.
N Engl J Med. 2021;384(13):1227-1239.

Upadacitinib efficacy proves to be greater than placebo, and non-inferior to adalimumab, in treating patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Already approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, McInnes, et al. studied oral upadacitinib at a dose of 15 mg or 30 mg, alongside placebo or adalimumab, in this 24-week, Phase III trial, in over 1700 patients with PsA. At the primary endpoint (Week 12), ACR20 response was greater with upadacitinib than placebo, and non-inferior to adalimumab; ...

April 21

Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study

Desai RJ, Pawar A, Khosrow-Khavar F, Weinblatt ME, Kim SC.
Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021 Mar 22:keab294. Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab294

A population-based cohort study of 87,653 RA patients has found no evidence for an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for tofacitinib, versus TNFis, in patients with RA. The introduction of JAKinibs, almost a decade ago, has provided an important oral option for the treatment of RA. However, in recent years, a safety concern, relating to incidence of VTE after treatment, has emerged. Consequently, both the US and European regulatory authorities now recommend caution for use of tofaci...

Comparative Analysis of BTK Inhibitors and Mechanisms Underlying Adverse Effects

Estupiñán HY, Berglöf A, Zain R, Smith CIE.
Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9:630942 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.630942

Understanding of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway led to the identification of a suitable drug target to addresses autoimmunity and inflammation in areas such as MS, RA, pemphigus and SLE. There are currently 22 BTKis in various stages of clinical development. However, AEs such as cardiovascular and bleeding side effects, as well as rash, diarrhoea and infections have been associated with the inhibition of other kinases with a BTKi-binding cysteine in their catalytic domain. Based on clini...

JAK selectivity and the implications for clinical inhibition of pharmacodynamic cytokine signalling by filgotinib, upadacitinib, tofacitinib and baricitinib

Traves PG, Murray B, Campigotto F, Galien R, Meng A, Di Paolo JA.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Mar 19:annrheumdis-2020-219012. Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219012

The first study to combine in vitro inhibition of cytokine responses in whole blood with clinical pharmacokinetics of individual JAKinibs to model daily cytokine-mediated pharmacodynamic profiles in healthy individuals and patients with RA, has demonstrated that JAKinib potencies depended on cytokine stimulus, pSTAT readout and cell type. Traves and colleagues have observed that JAKinibs have unique, differential effects on specific cytokine signalling pathways, dependent on cytokine stimulus, S...

Filgotinib, a Novel JAK1-Preferential Inhibitor for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Overview from Clinical Trials

Tanaka Y, Kavanaugh A, Wicklund J, McInnes IB.
Mod Rheumatol. 2021 Mar 19:1-26. Epub ahead of print. DOI 10.1080/14397595.2021.1902617

Filgotinib is the latest JAKinib to enter the international market for the treatment of RA, receiving regulatory approval in Japan and Europe late last year. In this review paper, Tanaka Y et al. examine the clinical evidence supporting its use as a later-line treatment, in accordance with international RA management guidelines, and provide their expert opinions on JAKinibs from a clinical perspective. The core clinical programme evaluating filgotinib in patients with moderately-to-severely acti...

March 21

Upadacitinib en Artritis Reumatoide: Una Evaluación de Riesgo-Beneficio en el Programa de Fase III

Conaghan PG, Mysler E, Tanaka Y, Da Silva-Tillmann B, Shaw T, Liu J, Ferguson R, Enejosa JV, Cohen S, Nash P, Rigby W, Burmester G.
Drug Saf. 2021 Feb 2. DOI: 10.1007/s40264-020-01036-w

Upadacitinib 15 mg has a favourable benefit–risk profile according to an assessment of data from the phase III SELECT clinical trial programme. In this review of data for the once-daily, oral JAK inhibitor, Conaghan PG, et al. provided insights into the benefit–risk profile of upadacitinib in approximately 4400 patients with RA. Based on pooled data from five pivotal studies, benefits and risks were assessed up to the time of regulatory submission, and additional long-term integra...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Efectos de Un Año de Terapia con Tofacitinib en el Metabolismo Óseo en Artritis Reumatoide

Hamar A, Szekanecz Z, Pusztai A, Czókolyová M, Végh E, Pethő Z, Bodnár N, Gulyás K, Horváth Á, Soós B, Bodoki L, Bhattoa H P, Nagy G, Tajti G, Panyi G, Szekanecz É, Domján A, Hodosi K, Szántó S, Szűcs G, Szamosi S.
Osteoporos Int 2021 Feb 9 DOI 10.1007/s00198-021-05871-0

Thought to be the first study of its kind, Hamar, et al. have demonstrated the effect of one-year tofacitinib treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in RA patients. While the association between RA and osteoporosis is well known, and evidence indicates that up to 70% of these patients have reduced BMD, little information is available on how the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib affects bone status, areal and volumetric BMD, and bone turnover markers. In this prospective study, 30 patients were asse...

Seguridad y Eficacia de Filgotinib: Resultados de Hasta 4 Años de un Estudio de Extensión Abierto de los Programas de Fase 2 en Artritis Reumatoide

Kavanaugh A, Westhovens RR, Winthrop KL, Lee SJ, Tan Y, An D, Ye L, Sundy JS, Besuyen R, Meuleners L, Stanislavchuk M, Spindler AJ, Greenwald M, Alten R, Genovese MC.
J Rheumatol. 2021 Feb 1:jrheum.201183. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.201183.

A long-term extension study of filgotinib showed consistent safety profile and sustained efficacy with the drug for up to four years. The DARWIN 3 study, for patients who previously completed either the 24-week DARWIN 1 study (filgotinib + MTX) or the DARWIN 2 study (filgotinib monotherapy), enrolled 739 patients with RA. At the time of analysis, 440 patients had received four years or more of filgotinib. Exposure-adjusted incidence rate per 100 patient-years-of-exposure for TEAEs was 24.6 i...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Estudio de Seguridad Comparativa Pos-Aprobación de Tofacitinib y Fármacos Biológicos Antirreumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad: Resultados de 5 años de un Registro de Artritis Reumatoide basado en los Estados Unidos

Kremer JM, Bingham CO 3rd, Cappelli LC, Greenberg JD, Madsen AM, Geier J, Rivas JL, Onofrei AM, Barr CJ, Pappas DA, Litman HJ, Dandreo KJ, Shapiro AB, Connell CA, Kavanaugh A.
ACR Open Rheumatol. 2021 Feb 11.

Analysis from the US Corrona RA registry has provided the longest-term real-world safety data for a JAK inhibitor to date. The analysis showed that the cohorts had similar adverse events, except for higher herpes zoster rates for tofacitinib initiators vs bDMARDs. Kremer JM, et al. analysed adult patients with RA newly initiating tofacitinib, or a bDMARD, to compare incidence rates of MACE, SIEs, HZ, malignancies and death. VTE data were also collected prospectively and assessed descriptively t...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical

¿Cuál Resultado Reportado por el Paciente es el más Importante para los Pacientes Reumatológicos para se Rastrear Digitalmente? Un Estudio Longitudinal de Mundo- Real de ArthritisPower

Nowell WB, Gavigan K, Kannowski CL, Cai Z, Hunter T, Venkatachalam S, Birt J, Workman J, Curtis JR.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2021;23(1):53.

Fatigue, physical function, pain, and morning joint stiffness are the most important PROs to track, according to the rheumatology patients who experience these symptoms. Increasingly used, alongside clinical measures, to track symptoms and assess disease activity over time, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are also important indicators of quality of life and treatment effectiveness. To enable us to better understand which PROs patients with rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease consider most im...

Keywords: JAK, Real World, PRO

February 21

Filgotinib en Combinación con Metotrexato o Monoterapia Versus Metotrexato Monoterapia en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa con Exposición Limitada o nula a Metotrexato: El Estudio de Fase 3, Aleatorizado Controlado FINCH 3

Westhovens R, Rigby WF, van der Heijde D, Ching DW, Stohl W, Kay J, Chopra A, Bartok B, Matzkies F, Yin Z, Guo Y, Tasset C, Sundy JS, Jahreis A, Mozaffarian N, Messina OD, Landewé R BM, Atsumi T, Burmester GR.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Jan 15:annrheumdis-2020-219213.

Filgotinib doses in combination with MTX have shown improved signs, symptoms and physical function in patients with RA and limited or no prior MTX exposure. FIL 200mg monotherapy did not have a superior ACR20 response rate versus MTX. This 52-week, phase 3 study evaluated FIL in 1252 patients with RA. Patients were randomised to FIL 200mg + MTX or FIL 100mg + MTX, FIL 200 mg monotherapy, or MTX monotherapy. The primary endpoint was the proportion patients achieving ACR20 at week 24. Safety was...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Upadacitinib Monoterapia Versus Metotrexato Monoterapia en Pacientes Japoneses con Artritis Reumatoide Metotrexato Naïve: Un subanálisis del estudio de fase 3 SELECT-EARLY

Takeuchi T, Rischmueller M, Blanco R, Xavier RM, Ueki Y, Atsumi T, Chen S, Friedman A, Pangan AL, Strand V, van Vollenhoven RF.
Mod Rheumatol 2021;26:1–16.

In this sub-analysis of the Phase 3 SELECT-EARLY study, UPA demonstrated clinical efficacy superior to placebo in the Japanese subpopulation. Along with a favourable efficacy observed with the Japan-specific 7.5 mg dose of UPA for all secondary endpoints. SELECT-EARLY was designed to study the safety and efficacy of UPA 15 and 30mg as monotherapy, but it also included a subset of 138 Japanese patients, 40% of whom were randomised to receive UPA 7.5mg. This was designed to meet the requirements...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Señalización JAK/STAT Inducida por Citoquinas está Asociada con Artritis Reumatoide y Actividad de la Enfermedad

Ptacek J, Hawtin RE, Sun D, Louie B, Evensen E, Mittleman BB, Cesano A, Cavet G, Bingham CO III, Cofield SS, Curtis JR, Danila MI, Raman C, Furie RA, Genovese MC, et al.
PLoS ONE 2021;16(1):e0244187

This analysis provides evidence that immune cell signalling pathways are important in RA. There were consistent differences between RA patients and healthy controls in IFNα, IL-6, IL-10 and GM-CSF+ IL-2 induced JAK/STAT signalling in multiple immune cell subsets. We know that RA is characterised by dysregulation of immune responses, but the exact cause is unknown. Recently, single-cell transcriptomics and mass cytometry confirmed the critical role of activated immune cells and fibroblasts...

Keywords: JAK, MOA

Filgotinib Versus Placebo o Adalimumab en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y Respuesta Inadecuada a Metotrexato: Un Ensayo Clínico Aleatorizado de Fase III

Combe B, Kivitz A, Tanaka Y, van der Heijde D, Simon JA, Baraf HSB, Kumar U, Matzkies F, Bartok B, Ye L, Guo Y, Tasset C, Sundy JS, Jahreis A, Genovese MC, Mozaffarian M, Landewé RBM, Bae S-C, Keystone EC, Nash P.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Jan 27:annrheumdis-2020-219214

Filgotinib improved RA signs and symptoms, physical function, and inhibited radiographic progression. FIL 200mg plus MTX, but not FIL 100mg plus MTX showed non-inferiority to ADA plus MTX, based on DAS28(CRP) low disease activity. FIL was also well tolerated in RA patients with inadequate response to MTX. This 52-week, phase 3 randomised clinical trial (FINCH 1) evaluated the efficacy and safety of FIL in patients with RA randomised to FIL 200 or 100mg, ADA 40mg, or placebo, all with background...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Efficacy

January 21

Poster: JAKi Recommendations for Use

Nash P, et al.
Ann Rheum Dis 2021;80:71–87.

Points to Consider for the Treatment of Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases With Janus Kinase Inhibitors: A Consensus Statement. The poster highlights all the key considerations from the consensus statement. Download by Clicking on the Links Above

Upadacitinib en Artritis Psoriásica Refractaria a Biológicos: SELECT-PsA 2

Mease PJ, Lertratanakul A, Anderson JK, Papp K, Van den Bosch F, Tsuji S, Dokoupilova E, Keiserman M, Wang X, Zhong S, McCaskill RM, Zueger P, Pangan AL, Tillett W.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases. 2021 Mar 1;80(3):312-20.

In this trial of patients with active PsA who had inadequate response or intolerance to at least one biologic DMARD, upadacitinib 15 mg and 30 mg was more effective than placebo over 24 weeks in improving signs and symptoms of PsA. Despite the availability of bDMARDs in PsA, only a small proportion of patients achieve the recommended target of minimal disease activity; as such, additional treatment options are needed. Upadacitinib is under evaluation for PsA. This paper reports the 24-week data...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Tofacitinib en Artritis Psoriásica: Signos y Síntomas y Calidad de Vida Relacionada con la Salud en dos Estudios Aleatorizados de Fase 3

Merola JF, Papp KA, Nash P, Gratacós J, Boehncke W-H, Thaçi D, Graham D, Hsu M-A, Wang C, Wu J, Young P.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2020;34:2809–2820.

Considering the multi-domain nature of PsA, effective treatments must demonstrate efficacy across a range of clinical and patient-reported outcomes. Dermatologic symptoms often precede rheumatic manifestations in people with PsA, typically by 10 years. Tofacitinib demonstrated significant improvements across a range of outcomes including burdensome dermatologic symptoms. This post hoc analysis included data from two double-blind, Phase 3 studies in patients with active PsA and an inadequate res...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Artritis Reumatoide Difícil de Tratar: Definición EULAR

Nagy G, Roodenrijs NMT, Welsing PMJ, Kedves M, Hamar A, van der Goes MC, Kent A, Bakkers M, et al.
Ann Rheum Dis 2021;80:31–35.

A significant proportion of people with RA remain symptomatic despite treatment according to current management recommendations. Different terms have traditionally been used to describe this subpopulation, including severe, refractory, resistant to multiple drugs or treatments, established and difficult-to-treat. A recent survey indicated that – in addition to new drugs – new management approaches are needed for optimal treatment in these patients. A EULAR Task Force agreed the unifo...

Keywords: JAK

Eficacia Comparativa entre Inhibidor del Factor de Necrosis Tumoral de Primera Línea versus Biológico no Inhibidor del Factor de Necrosis Tumoral y Agentes Sintéticos Dirigidos en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide: Resultados de un Grand Estudio de Registro Americano

Pappas DA, St John G, Etzel CJ, Fiore S, Blachley T, Kimura T, Punekar R, Emeanuru K, Choi J, Boklage S, Kremer JM.
Ann Rheum Dis 2021;80:96–102.

RA treatment guidelines recommend a treat-to-target approach guided by disease stage and treatment history, yet the optimal sequence of different treatment modalities has not been established. Data from Corrona – were used to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of TNFi versus non-TNFi bDMARDs and tsDMARDs as first-line treatment following csDMARD failure. Results support RA guidelines recommending individualised care based on clinical judgement and consideration of patient preference. T...

Keywords: JAK, Real World, Efficacy

Puntos a se Considerar para el tratamiento de Enfermedades Inflamatórias Inmunomediadas con Inhibidores de la Quinasa Janus: Una Declaración de Consenso

Nash P, Kerschbaumer A, Dorner T, Dougados M, Fleischmann RM, Geissler K, McInnes I, Pope JE, van der Heijde D, Stoffer-Marx M, Takeuchi T, Trauner M, Winthrop KL, de Wit M, Aletaha D, Baraliakos X, Boehncke W-H, Emery P, Isaacs JD, Kremer J, Lee EB, et al.
2021 Jan;80(1):71-87. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218398. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

JAKi are approved in various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. With five JAKi now licensed, this paper reviews key points to consider in their use to assist clinicians, patients, and other stakeholders once the decision is made to commence JAKi. The consensus was developed by a Steering Committee and an expanded Task Force using EULAR standard operating procedures. The committee included patients as well as experts in rheumatology, gastroenterology, haematology, dermatology, and infectious ...

Keywords: JAK, Efficacy

December 20

Eficacia de Baricitinib en pacientes con artritis reumatoide moderada a severa con 3 años de tratamiento: resultados del estudio a largo plazo

Smolen JS, Xie L, Jia B, Taylor PC, Burmester G, Tanaka Y, Elias A, Cardoso A, Ortmann R, Walls C, Dougados M.
Rheumatology 2020; doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keaa576

Three year follow up data for baricitinib demonstrated efficacy in populations that span the clinical disease continuum in RA, including DMARD-naïve, MTX-IR, csDMARD-IR, and bDMARD-IR and was well tolerated. This study evaluated achievement and maintenance of LDA, remission and physical functioning in patients treated with baricitinib for up to 3 years. Data were analysed from two 52-week, Phase 3 studies (RA-BEAM and RA-BEGIN), and one ongoing long-term extension (RA-BEYOND). Patients com...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Puntos importantes en el tratamiento de enfermedades inflamatorias inmunomediadas con inhibidores de Janus Quinasa: una revisión sistemática de la literatura

Kerschbaumer A, Smolen JS, Nash P, Doerner T, Dougados M, Fleischmann R, Geissler K, McInnes IM, Takeuchi T, Trauner M, Winthrop K, de Wit M, Boehncke W-H, Falzon L, van der Heijde D.
RMD Open 2020;6:e001374 doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001374

Trials of JAKi have been conducted in many therapy areas, including rheumatology, dermatology and gastroenterology. In 2019, a task force was set up to create a consensus to guide clinicians on how to use JAKi in clinical practice. This systematic literature review conducted in 2019 support this consensus In line with EULAR’s standardised operating procedures for recommendations, a literature search was conducted in EMBASE, Medline and the Cochrane Library databases. To evaluate the effica...

Cambiando entre el inhibidor de Janus quinasa upadacitinib y adalimumab siguiendo respuesta insuficiente: eficacia y seguridad en pacientes con artritis reumatoide

Fleischmann RM, Blanco R, Hall S, Thomson GTD, Van den Bosch FE, Zerbini C, Bessette L, Enejosa J, Li Y, Song Y, DeMasi R, Song I-H.
Ann Rheum Dis 2020; doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-21841220

Both ACR and EULAR recommend adding a biologic or targeted synthetic DMARD in patients who do not achieve treatment goals at follow-up. Findings indicated that an immediate switch in mechanism of action (from JAKi to TNFi and vice versa) following treat-to-target principles is feasible with minimal risk of flare regardless of whether patients are switched due to non-response or incomplete-response. SELECT-COMPARE followed treat-to-target principles to examine the efficacy of switching in two pat...

November 20

Perfil de Seguridad de Upadacitinib en Artritis Reumatoide: Un análisis integrado de seguridad del Programa Clínico de Fase III SELECT

Cohen SB, van Vollenhoven RF, Winthrop KL, Zerbini CAF, Tanaka Y, Bessette L, Zhang Y, Khan N, Hendrickson B, Enejosa JV, Burmester GR.
Ann Rheum Dis 2020 DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218510

This integrated Phase III safety analysis of UPA showed that UPA had a similar profile to ADA and MTX for serious infections, malignancies, and thromboembolic events. Patients receiving UPA had increased risk of HZ and creatine phosphokinase elevation versus ADA. This integrated Phase III safety analysis of UPA examined >3500 RA patients and 4000 patient-years of exposure. Data were pooled from 3834 patients in SELECT-NEXT, SELECT-BEYOND, SELECT-MONOTHERAPY, SELECT-COMPARE and SELECT-EARLY s...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

Ensayo Clínico de Upadacitinib o Abatacept en Artritis Reumatoide

Rubbert‑Roth A, Enejosa J, Pangan AL, Haraoui B, Rischmueller M, Khan N, Zhang Y, Martin N, Xavier RM.
N Engl J Med 2020;383:1511–21 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2008250

In patients with refractory RA to bDMARDs, upadacitinib was found to be superior to abatacept in DAS28-CRP change from baseline and the achievement of remission at week 12. 612 bDMARD-IR patients were randomised 1:1 to UPA 15 mg QD or ABA, each in combination with stable synthetic DMARDs. At Week 12, patients with <20% decrease in TJC and Swollen joint count (SJC) had background medication adjusted or added. All patients completing Week 24 were eligible to remain in an open-label, long-term ...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Incidencia Basada en Edad (<65 vs ≥65 años) de Infecciones y Infecciones Graves con Tofacitinib versus DMARDs Biológicos en los Ensayos Clínicos en Artritis Reumatoide en los EE.UU. y en el Registro Corrona RA

Winthrop KL, Citera G, Gold D, Henrohn D, Connell CA, Shapiro AB, Shi H, Onofrei AM, Pappas DA, Schulze-Koops H.
Ann Rheum Dis 2020; DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-218992

Reports from clinical trials and the US Corrona RA registry showed that serious infection event (SIE) incidence was higher in older versus younger patients with RA receiving 10 mg BID of TOF and ADA, however, SIE risk was similar between age groups with TOF 5 mg BID and ADA. Data were collected from Phase II–IV tofacitinib studies, and the US Corrona RA registry. The clinical data set evaluated patients receiving TOF 5 and 10 mg BID versus TNFi (ADA/ETN) in RA patients aged ≥50 years. ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

October 20

Caracterización Preclínica de Itacitinib (INCB039110), un Nuevo Inhibidor Selectivo de JAK1, para el Tratamiento de Enfermedades Inflamatorias

Covington M, He X, Scuron M, Li J, Collins R, Juvekar A, Shin N, Favata M, Gallagher K, Sarah S, Xue CB, Peel M, Burke K, Oliver J, Fay B, Yao W, Huang T, Scherle P, Diamond S, Newton R, Zhang Y, Smith.
European Journal of Pharmacology. 2020 Oct 15;885:173505. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173505

Itacitinib is an orally active JAK inhibitor and effectively delayed disease onset, reduced symptom severity, and accelerated recovery of inflammatory diseases in mouse models. Covington M et al demonstrated itacitinib’s high selectivity for JAK 1, its inhibition on IL-2 induced T cell proliferation and JAK/STAT signalling, its ability to also inhibit of the JAK/STAT pathway in response to IL-6 stimulation, and its effect on rat adjuvant induced arthritis model. The study used recombina...

Keywords: JAK, Preclinical, Selectivity

Translated by: Igor Kos

Eficacia de Baricitinib en el Tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide: Efecto Modulatorio en Biomarcadores Inflamatorios y de Fibrose en un Escenario de Vida Real

Alessandro M, Perillo F, Refini R, Bergantini L, Bellisai F, Selvi E, Cameli P, Manganelli S, Conticini E, Cantarini L, Sestini P, Frediani B, Bargagli E.
Int Immunopharmacol. 2020 Sep;86:106748.

BARI demonstrated to be a safe immune modulator that reduces the concentrations biomarkers of lung fibrosis and inflammation in RA patients, including a subgroup with interstitial lung involvement. Professor Alessandro and colleagues analysed the effects of baricitinib in a population of RA and RA-ILD patients in a real-life setting, describing any changes in lung function parameters, serum inflammatory biomarkers and fibrotic biomarkers after 6 months of treatment. Fifteen patients were recru...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Baricitinib, un Fármaco con Efecto Potencial en la Prevención de la Entrada del SARS-COV-2 en las Células Blanco y en el Control del “Cytokine-Storm” Inducido por COVID-19

Zhang X, Zhang Y, Qiao W, Zhang J, Qi Z.
Journal of International Immunopharmacology. 2020 Sep;86:106749. doi: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106749.

BARI may potentially interrupt the passage of SARS-CoV-2 into the target cells by binding to AAK1 and GAK, which are regulators of the ACE2 receptor regulator identified for its uptake, and could also treat cytokine storm through suppression JAK1/JAK2. Professor Zhang and et al reviewed BARI, as a potential drug to prevent SARS-COV-2 from entering target cells. They also evaluated BARI’s ability to control COVID-19 induced cytokine storm. As a cell surface protein, ACE2 is involved in re...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib

Translated by: Igor Kos

Tofacitinib y Baricitinib son Capturados por Diferentes Mecanismos de Captura Determinando la Eficacia de Ambos los Fármacos en AR

Amrhein J, Drynda S, Schlatt L, Karst U, Lohmann C, Ciarimboli G, Bertrand J.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020; 21:6632 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21186632

Amrhein et al examined the different uptake and expulsion mechanisms of BARI and TOF in cellular assays. Different cellular uptake mechanism for BARI and TOF was observed and showed that BARI’s transport was not dependent on organic cation transporters. Results indicated TOF was exported from RASF in a MATE-1 dependent way. TOF might be exported from healthy cells, thereby not inhibiting JAK pathway in these cells The interaction of BARI and TOF with OCTs was investigated using quenching ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Translated by: Igor Kos

September 20

Incidencia de Eventos Tromboembólicos Arteriales y Venosos Reportados en Los Programas de Desarrollo de Tofacitinib en Artritis Reumatoide, Psoriasis y Artritis Psoriásica y de Datos de Mundo Real

Mease P, Charles-Schoeman C, Cohen S, Fallon L, Woolcott J, Yun H, Kremer J, Greenberg J, Malley W, Onofrei A, Kanik KS, Graham D, Wang C, Connell C, Valdez H, Hauben M, Hung E, Madsen A, Jones TV, Curtis JR.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 05 August 2020 2020 Nov;79(11):1400-1413. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-216761. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Concerns surrounding increased rates of PE and cardiovascular associated deaths has led to black box warnings when prescribing JAK inhibitors. As such, ongoing investigations regarding cardiovascular and VTE event risks in JAK inhibitor therapies, both clinical and real-world, are vital. Mease and colleagues consider data from clinical tofacitinib development programmes, and the ongoing real-data study A3921133. Conclusions from data analysis state that those with pre-existing cardiovascular and...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Cardiovascular

Translated by: Igor Koz

Evaluación de la Asociación de los Anticuerpos anti-CarbV y anti- MCV en el baseline con la respuesta al tratamiento y con la progresión radiográfica en una población con AR tratada con Metotrexato o Baricitinib: un análisis post-hoc de RA-BEGIN

López-Romero P, Martinez-Gamboa L, Bang H, de la Torre I, Holzkämper T, Feist E.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2020;22(1):193

Autoantibodies associated with the onset of RA have gained attention in recent years as prognostic biomarkers. Though not used diagnostically, anti-CarbV (carbamylated vimentin) and anti-MCV (vimentin modified by citrullination) baseline titers are being investigated as predictors of treatment response. In this post-hoc analysis of data from the RA-BEGIN cohort of active RA patients, López-Romero and colleagues consider the potential predictive values of baseline anti-CarbV and anti-MCV t...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Radiographic

Translated by: Igor Koz

Infecciones en los Ensayos Clínicos de Baricitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa

Winthrop KL, Harigai M, Genovese MC, Lindsey S, Takeuchi T, Fleischmann R, Bradley JD, Byers NL, Hyslop DL, Issa M, Nishikawa A, Rooney TP, Witt S, Dickson CL, Smolen JS, Dougados M.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, May 2020

Baricitinib, an oral selective JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor,8 demonstrated significant clinical efficacy in phase 3 RA trials. Pooled data from these trials, including a long-term extension (LTE), inform the safety profile for baricitinib, mainly to evaluate the incidence of infection in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with a focus on serious infection, tuberculosis (TB), herpes zoster (HZ) and opportunistic infection (OI). The data collected were from eight double-blind randomised ...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Tasas de Incidencia de Eventos de Enfermedad Intersticial Pulmonar en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Tratados con Tofacitinib

Citera G, Mysler E, Madariaga H, Cardiel M H, Castaneda O, Fischer A, Richette P, Chartrand S, Park J K, Strengholt S, Rivas J L, Thorat A V, Girard T, Kwok K, Wang L.
Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, Aug 2020 doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001552.

This study highlights the importance of accounting for known risk factors of RA-ILD in clinical practice. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is an extra-articular manifestation of RA. The post-hoc investigated incidence rates of ILD in patients with RA, receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily, and identified potential risk factors for ILD. This post-hoc analysis comprised a pooled analysis of patients receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily or placebo from 21 Phase 1-4, and 2 long-term e...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

August 20

Eficacia y Seguridad a Largo Plazo de Baricitinib con y sin Metotrexato para el Tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide: Experiencia con la Continuación de Baricitinib Monoterapia o Después del Cambio de Metotrexato Monoterapia o Baricitinib más Metotrexato

Fleischmann R, Takeuchi T, Schiff M, Schlichting D, Xie L, Issa M, Stoykov I, Lisse J, Martinez-Osuna P, Rooney T, Zerbini CAF.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2020;72(8):1112-1121

This 24-week update from the baricitinib RA-BEYOND LTE study follows patients previously treated in the pivotal study RA-BEGIN. It demonstrates the maintained safety and efficacy of baricitinib monotherapy, and the effects of concurrent MTX treatment on response rates and patient reported outcomes. Previous P3 study RA-BEGIN demonstrated the superior efficacy of 4mg baricitinib compared to MTX monotherapy up to 52 weeks, with no major safety events being identified. At the end of the trial, pa...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Koz

Eficacia y Seguridad de Upadacitinib Monoterapia en Pacientes Metotrexato-Naïve con Artritis Reumatoide Moderada a Grave (SELECT- EARLY): Un Ensayo Aleatorizado, Doble-ciego, con Comparador Activo Multicéntrico Internacional

van Vollenhoven R, Takeuchi T, Pangan AL, Friedman A, Mohamed MEF, Chen S, Rischmueller M, Blanco R, Xavier RM, Strand V.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2020

Upadacitinib monotherapy demonstrated superior clinical, radiographic, and patient-reported outcomes versus methotrexate in methotrexate-naïve RA patients. This 48-week double-blind active comparator study investigated upadacitinib monotherapy in patients with early RA, who were either methotrexate-naïve, or who had very limited exposure. 947 patients were randomised to once-daily upadacitinib 15 or 30 mg, or weekly methotrexate. Unusually, there were two separate primary endpoints, s...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Koz

July 20

Seguridad de DMARDs sintéticos y biológicos: una revisión sistemática de la literatura informando la actualización de 2019 de las recomendaciones EULAR para el tratamiento de la artritis reumatoide

Sepriano A, Kerschbaumer A, Smolen JS, Van Der Heijde D, Dougados M, Van Vollenhoven R, McInnes IB, Bijlsma JW, Burmester GR, De Wit M, Falzon L, Landewé R.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2020;79:760-770

This SLR informed the 2019 EULAR taskforce updating recommendations for RA management. Overall, no new safety signals were reported. The known safety profile of bDMARDs was confirmed and extended to tsDMARDS. IL-6i associated lower intestinal perforation has been further confirmed, while VTE and PE concerns in JAKi treatment need further evaluation. Previous updates for the EULAR recommendations on RA pharmacological management were conducted in 2016. In this SLR safety of csDMARDs, tsDMARDs, a...

Keywords: Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Tratamiento Farmacológico de la Artritis Psoriásica: Una Revisión Sistemática de la Literatura para la Actualización de las Recomendaciones EULAR del Tratamiento de la Artritis Psoriásica

Kerschbaumer A, Smolen JS, Dougados M, De Wit M, Primdahl J, McInnes I, Van Der Heijde D, Baraliakos X, Falzon L, Gossec L.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2020;79:778-786

This SLR reviewed data on pharmacological treatment of PsA. Findings informed the 2019 EULAR taskforce when updating recommendations for PsA management. Overall, no new safety signals were reported. Encouragingly, LTEs of JAKi did not report any venous thromboembolic events or PEs. Efficacy was demonstrated for a range of bDMARD and tsDMARD therapies in various disease domains. Efficacy varied between PsA manifestations and between therapies. Observational data demonstrated efficacy when switchi...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

COVID-19 Revisando las vías inflamatorias en artritis

Schett G, Manger B, Simon D, Caporali R.
Nat Rev Rheumatol 2020 doi.org/10.1038/s41584-020-0451-z

This review investigates the potential implications of COVID-19 on the field of rheumatology. Common pathways in COVID-19 and RA have provided rationale for the trial of DMARD therapies in treatment of severe COVID-19 infections. Safety considerations of RA patients undergoing immunomodulatory treatments are reviewed. Recommendations suggest that RA patients should continue DMARD treatment, whereas glucocorticoid use could be deleterious in COVID-19 infection and should be considered carefully, ...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling

Translated by: Igor Koz

Seguridad y Eficacia de Tofacitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Psoriásica Activa: Análisis Provisional de OPAL Balance, un Estudio Abierto de Extensión a Largo Plazo

Nash P, Coates LC, Kivitz AJ, Mease PJ, Gladman DD, Covarrubias-Cobos JA, FitzGerald O, Fleishaker D, Wang C, Wu J, Hsu M, Menon S, Fallon L, Romero AB, Kanik KS.
Rheumatol Ther 2020 doi.org/10.1007/s40744-020-00209-4

This 3-year, open-label, LTE study follows PsA patients previously treated in pivotal studies OPAL Broaden and OPAL Beyond. It demonstrates maintained safety and efficacy of tofacitinib up to 36 and 30 months, respectively. No new safety concerns are highlighted. Previous P3 studies, OPAL Broaden and OPAL Beyond, demonstrated safety and efficacy of 5mg and 10mg tofacitinib BID in PsA. These patients rolled over to OPAL Balance for a period of 36 months. 686 participants were used in this inter...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Retención del fármaco con 7 biológicos y tofacitinib en pacientes con artritis reumatoide naïve para biológicos y pacientes que cambiaron de biológicos: el estudio de cohorte ANSWER

Ebina K, Hirano T, Maeda Y, Yamamoto W, Hashimoto M, Murata K, Takeuchi T, Shiba H, Son Y, Amuro H, Onishi A, Akashi K, Hara R, Katayama M, Yamamoto K, Kumanogoh A, Hirao M.
Arthritis Res Ther 2020;22:142

This paper is based upon a long-term cohort study, namely the ANSWER cohort, an observational multi-centre registry of RA patients in the Kansai district of Japan. Analyses demonstrate a difference in observed drug retention between bDMARDs-naïve and bDMARDs-switched patients. 7 bDMARD treatments were compared in patients with no prior exposure to biologics, with abatacept showing the greatest retention rate. In patients that had switched between these same bDMARDs or to tofacitinib through...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib

Translated by: Igor Koz

June 20

Eficiencia Comparada de los Agentes anti-factor de Necrosis Tumoral, Biológicos con un Modo de Acción Alternativo y Tofacitinib en una coorte observacional de pacientes con artritis reumatoide en Suiza

Finckh A, Tellenbach C, Herzog L, Scherer A, Moeller B, Ciurea A, von Muehlenen I, Gabay C, Kyburz D, Brulhart L, Müller R, Hasler P, Zufferey P.
RMD Open 2020;6:e001174 doi:10.1136/rmdopen-2020-001174

This nested cohort study found that, in Switzerland, there was a generally limited overall drug maintenance for b/tsDMARD options in RA. Using data from SCQM-RA – a prospective longitudinal registry, overall maintenance (drug survival) was calculated for TNFi, bDMARD-OMA or JAKi in patients with RA. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, there was a higher hazard of drug discontinuation with TNFi compared with tofacitinib; no significant difference was observed between non-TNF ...

Keywords: Cytokine Signalling, Real World, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Interrupción Temporaria de Baricitinib: Caracterización de las Interrupciones y Efecto en los Desenlaces Clínicos de los Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide

Emery P, Tanaka Y, Cardillo T, Schlichting D, Rooney T, Beattie S, Helt C, Smolen JS.
Arth Res Ther 2020;22:115 doi.org/10.1186/s13075-020-02199-8

This study aimed to characterize temporary interruptions of baricitinib and describe their impact on efficacy and safety. Brief interruptions during phase 3 baricitinib trials were associated with minor increases in symptoms which were resolved following treatment. In life-long, chronic conditions such as RA, interruption of therapy is common for various reasons, such as side effects, non-compliance, or because a patient requires surgery. Concerns have been raised that these treatment breaks c...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Perfil de Seguridad de Baricitinib en el Tratamiento de Artritis Reumatoide a lo largo de una mediana de 3 años de tratamiento: Un análisis actualizado integrado de seguridad

Genovese MC, Smolen JS, Takeuchi T, Burmester G, Brinker D, Rooney TP, Zhong J, Daojun M, Saifan C, Cardoso A, Issa M, Wu W-S, Winthrop KL.
Lancet Rheumatol 2020;2:e347–57

RA is a chronic, life-long disease requiring long-term treatment. As such, it is important to understand the long-term safety profile of DMARDs. In this analysis, baricitinib maintained a stable safety profile during long-term exposure. This baricitinib safety analysis included integrated data from nine Phase 3, 2, and 1b clinical trials, and one long-term extension, with data up to 360 weeks. 3700 patients were included, with maximum follow-up of almost 7 years – representing an additio...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

Baricitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide con Respuesta Inadecuada a Metotrexato: Resultados de un Estudio Fase 3

Li Z, Hu J, Bao C, Li X, Li X, Xu J, Spindler AJ, Zhang X, Xu J, He D, Li Z, Wang G, Yang Y, Wu H, Ji F, Tao H, Zhan L, Bai F, Rooney TP, Zerbini CAF.
Clin Exp Rheumatol . Jul-Aug 2020;38(4):732-741. Epub 2020 May 20.

This study conducted mainly in Chinese patients with RA, and an inadequate response to MTX, showed that baricitinib 4mg was associated with significant improvements and consistent with the findings from previous clinical trials. The efficacy and safety of baricitinib have been assessed in several clinical trials, predominantly in Caucasian populations. However, evidence on the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in Chinese patients is limited, with only one of the main clinical trial program stu...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

May 20

Fenebrutinib versus Placebo o Adalimumab en Artritis Reumatoide: Un estudio doble ciego aleatorizado de fase II (Estudio ANDES)

Cohen S, Tuckwell K, Katsumoto TR, Zhao R, Galanter J, Lee C, Rae J, Toth B, Ramamoorthi N, Hackney JA, Berman A, Damjanov N, Fedkov D, Jeka S, Chinn LW, Townsend MJ, Morimoto AM, Genovese MC.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2020 Sep; 72(9): 1435–1446.

In this randomised phase II trial with MTX treatment-refractory RA patients, greater efficacy was observed with fenebrutinib 150 mg once daily or 200 mg twice daily compared to placebo, while response rates were numerically similar to those observed with adalimumab. BTK inhibitors have demonstrated clinical efficacy in B cell malignancies and multiple sclerosis, although there is limited clinical evidence of its efficacy in RA. Fenebrutinib (FEN) an orally active and selective non-covalent inh...

Keywords: BTK, Clinical, Phase 2

Translated by: Igor Koz

Evaluación del Virus Hepatitis B en Ensayos Clínicos de Baricitinib en Artritis Reumatoide

Harigai M, Winthrop K, Takeuchi T, Hsieh T-Y, Chen Y-M, Smolen JS, Burmester G, Walls C, Wu W-S, Dickson C, Liao R, Genovese MC.
RMD Open 2020;6:e001095

Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation was seen in patients with RA treated with DMARDs, including BARI, who had serology suggestive of prior infection, reactivation was transient even with continued BARI treatment and did not account for any clinically relevant AEs. Reactivation of HBV replication is a recognised complication in patients receiving biologic agents for RA, such as DMARDs. Limited data exist on prevalence of occult infection and the incidence of reactivation in RA patients...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Análisis Integrado de Seguridad de Tofacitinib en Artritis Psoriásica en Estudios de Fase 3 y de Extensión a Largo Plazo y Comparación con Datos Observacionales de Mundo Real

Burmester GR, Curtis JR, Yun H, FitzGerald O, Winthrop KL, Azevedo VF, Rigby WFC, Kanik KS, Wang C, Biswas P, Jones T, Palmetto N, Hendrikx T, Menon S, Rojo R.
Drug Saf. 2020;43:379-392

Patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) had similar safety profile with TOF to that of other systemic therapies in real-world settings, except for the known risk of HZ. Treatment recommendations from EULAR and GRAPPA for patients with PsA vary according to adverse prognostic risk factors, disease manifestations and responsiveness to prior treatment. Safety concerns for most PsA therapies include gastrointestinal AEs, hepatotoxicity, opportunistic infections (OIs) including TB, and SIEs. This s...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

April 20

Eficacia y Seguridad Relativas de Tofacitinib, Baricitinib, Upadacitinib y Filgotinib en Comparación con Adalimumab en pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa

Lee YH, Song GG.
Z Rheumatol. 2020 DOI: 10.1007/s00393-020-00750-1

This Bayesian network meta-analysis, comparing the relative efficacy and safety of JAK inhibitors, determined BARI 4mg + MTX and UPA 15mg + MTX were the most effective. The analysis included 5451 patients with an inadequate response to MTX and active RA, from four RCTs. Relative effects were converted into a probability allowing each treatment to be ranked. BARI and UPA had significantly higher ACR20 response rates than ADA 40mg + MTX whilst TOF 5mg and FIL 200mg had comparable ACR20 response ...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib

Translated by: Igor Koz

Efectividad a Largo Plazo de la Vacuna Viva Herpes Zoster en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Tratados Posteriormente con Tofacitinib

Winthrop KL, Wouters A, Choy EH, Chen C, Biswas P, Wang L, Soma K, Needle E, Valdez H, Rigby WFC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-216566

The results of ORAL Sequel suggest that the live zoster vaccine (LZV) may not provide adequate long-term protection in patients with RA receiving TOF. This LTE study enrolled 100 patients with RA, 14 weeks post LZV vaccination. Patients received either TOF 5 mg BID, or TOF 10 mg BID in addition to any background csDMARDs. Incidence rates and 95% CIs for HZ post-vaccination were calculated based on time to first event. Short-term varicella zoster vaccine (VZV) specific immunity was evaluated a...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Vasculitis IgA como Efecto Adverso de Tofacitinib en Artritis Reumatoide

Itoh I, Kasuno K, Yamamoto C, Takahashi N, Shimizu H, Ojima T, Hayashi S, Kimura H, Iwano M.
Intern Med. 2020;59(6):817-821

Nephrotoxicity is a key side effect of NSAIDs and DMARDs used to treat RA, while biologics can reportedly cause proliferative glomerulonephritis or crescentic glomerulonephritis. This report reviews a patient on TOF presenting IgA vasculitis as an adverse effect that fully resolved following termination of TOF. Drug induced IgA vasculitis has been previously described for anti-TNFɑ therapies, but this is the first report with JAK inhibitor therapy. This is a case report of a 67-year old woman w...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

March 20

Exposición a Baricitinib Durante el Embarazo en Artritis Reumatoide

Costanzo G, Firinu D, Losa F, Deidda M, Barca MP, Del Giacco S.
Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2020;12:1759720X19899296

Broad and focused studies are required to have an insight of safety for small molecules, such as JAK inhibitors in the case of accidental exposure before or during pregnancy. This case study’s objective describes a case report of a 43-year-old woman affected by RA who became pregnant during BARI treatment. She has had two previous pregnancies at term without complications. After failure of bDMARDs due to loss of efficacy and adverse drug reactions, the patient was started on BARI when i...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Real World, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Impacto de la Inhibición de Janus Quinasa con Tofacitinib en los Procesos Fundamentales de Regeneración Ósea

Gaber T, Brinkman ACK, Pienczikowski J, Diesing K, Damerau A, Pfeiffenberger M, Lang A, Ohrndorf S, Burmester G-R, Buttgereit F, Hoff P.
Int J Mol Sci 2020;21:865

TOF demonstrated a dose-dependent promotion of human mesenchymal stromal cell (hMSC) recruitment under hypoxia, while inhibiting recruitment under normoxia. TOF also dose-dependently enhances osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and reduces osteoclast differentiation and activity. As people age, they are more likely to suffer from fractures and delayed bone healing, as well as degenerative joint diseases or osteoporosis. Bone metabolism and fracture healing may be negatively affected by underl...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical

Translated by: Igor Koz

La Inhibición JAK Aumenta la Masa Ósea en Condiciones de Estado Estacionário y Mejora la Pérdida Ósea Patológica al Estimular la Función de los Osteoblastos

Adam S, Simon N, Steffen U, Andes FT, Scholtysek C, Müller DIH, Weidner D, Andreev D, Kleyer A, Culemann S, Hahn M, Schett G, Krönke G, Frey S, Hueber AJ.
Sci Transl Med 2020;12(530):pii: eaay4447

JAKi significantly increased osteoblast function but showed no direct effects on osteoclasts. JAK signalling has emerged as an important therapeutic target for inflammatory disease, and the immunomodulation of JAK inhibition is well defined. Less well understood is the influence of this new class of drugs on bone homeostasis. This is important, as cytokine dysregulation triggers bone loss, and periarticular erosions contribute to the pathogenesis of RA. This study investigated the effect of B...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Preclinical

Translated by: Igor Koz

February 20

Recomendaciones EULAR para el Tratamiento de la Artritis Reumatoide – Actualización 2019 y Consenso acerca de los inhibidores JAK

Smolen JS, Landewé RBM, Bijlsma JWJ, Burmester GR, Dougados M, Kerschbaumer A, McInnes IB, Sepriano A, et al.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Jan 22. pii: annrheumdis-2019-216655.

The EULAR recommendations for the management of RA have become increasingly useful in providing rheumatologists, patients, payers and other stakeholders with the evidence-based guidance and views of experts on the optimal use and sequence of pharmaceutical therapies in patients with RA. Over the course of the last decade, the evolution of the treatment landscape has already required two updates. The release of the new addition updates the 2016 recommendations. An international task force consid...

Keywords: JAK

Translated by: Igor Koz

Filgotinib, un Inhibidor JAK1, Modula Biomarcadores Relacionados con la Enfermedad en la Artritis Reumatoide: Resultados de 2 Estudios Aleatorizados, Controlados de Fase 2

Tarrant JM, Galien R, Wanying L, Goyal L, Pan Y, Hawtin R, Zhang W, Van der Aa A and Taylor PC.
Rheumatol Ther. 2020 DOI: 10.1007/s40744-019-00192-5

In this study examining the effect of FIL on a panel of biomarkers, FIL down-modulated several key inflammatory mediators of signalling pathways in RA - independent of MTX background therapy. This confirmed the strong network effects of the JAK1 node in autoimmunity, matrix and cartilage degradation, angiogenesis, and leukocyte adhesion and recruitment. Biomarkers key to RA pathophysiology were measured at baseline, Wk4 and Wk12 in FIL 100 mg, FIL 200 mg or PBO treatment groups from two phase ...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Phase 2

Translated by: Igor Koz

Inhibición Preferencial de JAK1 en Relación a JAK 3 por Upadacitinib: Análisis de la Exposición-Respuesta de Datos Ex Vivo en 2 Ensayos Clínicos Fase 1 y Comparación con Tofacitinib

Mohamed MF, Beck D, Camp HS, Othman AA.
Pharmacodynamics. 2020

Ex vivo pharmacodynamic assay results demonstrated a greater selectivity of UPA on JAK1 versus JAK3 compared to TOF. This analysis conducted ex vivo stimulation of STAT3 phosphorylation by IL-6 as a measure of JAK1 activity and STAT5 phosphorylation by IL-7 as a measure of JAK1/JAK3 activity. Change in pSTAT3 and pSTAT5 were calculated at 1, 6 and 12 hours following drug administration using samples collected from healthy subjects and subjects with RA, from 2 phase 1 studies. Exposure-response...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Preclinical, MOA

Translated by: Igor Kos

January 20

Seguridad, Tolerabilidad, Farmacocinética, Ocupación de Blanco y Análisis del Intervalo QT del Nuevo Inhibidor BTK Evobrutinib en Voluntarios Sanos

Becker A, Martin EC, Mitchell DY, Grennigloh R, Bender AT, Mackenzie H and Johne A.
Clin Transl Sci . 2020 Mar;13(2):325-336. doi: 10.1111/cts.12713. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

In this first in-human phase I, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor evobrutinib was well-tolerated, showed linear and time-independent PK, induced long-lasting BTK inhibition, and was not associated with prolongation of QT/QTc interval in healthy subjects. Evobrutinib is an oral BTK inhibitor that has demonstrated efficacy in pre-clinical and autoimmune disease models. BTK is a key regulator of B cell receptor and Fc receptor signalling, an...

Keywords: BTK, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Koz

Tofacitinib en Combinación con Metotrexato en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide: Resultados Reportados por los Pacientes del Estudio de Fase 3 de 24 Meses ORAL Scan

Strand V, van der Heijde D, Tanaka Y, Keystone E, Kremer J, Zerbini C A F, Cardiel M H, Cohen S, Nash P, Song Y-W, Tegzová D, Gruben D, Wallenstein G, Connell C A, Fleischmann R.
Clin Exp Rheumatol . Sep-Oct 2020;38(5):848-857. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

In the ORAL SCAN study, patients receiving TOF 5 mg or 10 mg BID reported significant improvements in patient-reported outcomes at month 3 compared with placebo, which were maintained through 24 months of treatment. RA causes a significant health and socioeconomic burden and affects all aspects of health related quality of life. ORAL Scan included patients with active RA and inadequate response to MTX who were randomised to receive TOF 5 mg or 10 mg BID plus MTX or PBO. This study evaluated the ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, PRO

Translated by: Igor Koz

Efectos de Upadacitinib en los Resultados Reportados por los Pacientes: Resultados de SELECT-BEYOND, un Estudio clínico Aleatorizado de Fase 3 en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y Respuesta Inadecuada a los Fármacos Antirreumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad

Strand V, Schiff M, Tunida N, Friedman A, Meerwein S, Pangan A, Ganguli A, Fuldeore M, Song Y, Pope J.
Arthritis Res Ther . 2019 Dec 2;21(1):263. doi: 10.1186/s13075-019-2059-8.

In SELECT-BEYOND, UPA demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in patient reported outcomes compared to PBO in patients with RA who had an inadequate response to bDMARDs. In this post-hoc analysis of the SELECT-BEYOND study, the effect of UPA 15 or 30 mg on patient reported outcomes were assessed and compared to PBO. Eligible patients (498) with an inadequate response to bDMARDs were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive UPA 15 mg, UPA 30 mg or PBO. PROs collected at Wk1, Wk4, and Wk12 inclu...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, PRO

Translated by: Igor Koz

Upadacitinib Mejora los Resultados Reportados por los Pacientes en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y Respuesta Inadecuada a Fármacos Antirreumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad Sintéticos Convencionales: Resultados de SELECT-NEXT

Strand V, Pope J, Tundia N, Friedman A, Camp H, Pangan A, Ganguli A, Fuldeore M, Goldschmidt D, Schiff M.
Arthritis Res Ther . 2019 Dec 9;21(1):272.

In SELECT-NEXT, UPA demonstrated clinically meaningful improvements in patient reported outcomes compared to PBO in patients with RA who had an inadequate response to csDMARDs. In this post hoc analysis, the effect of UPA 15 or 30 mg on patient reported outcomes were assessed and compared to PBO. Eligible patients (661) with an inadequate response to csDMARDs were randomly assigned 2:2:1:1 to receive background csDMARD therapy with either UPA 15 mg, UPA 30 mg or PBO. PROs collected at Wk4 and Wk...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, PRO

Translated by: Igor Koz

December 19

Two-Year Safety and Effectiveness of Peficitinib in Moderate-To-Severe Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Phase IIb, Open-Label Extension Study

Genovese MC, Greenwald MW, Gutierrez-Ureña SR.
Rheumatol Ther . 2019 Dec;6(4):503-520. doi: 10.1007/s40744-019-00167-6. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Peficitinib (PEF) 100 mg QD demonstrated a stable safety profile and sustained effectiveness in patients with moderate-to-severe RA in a two-year extension of two global phase IIb studies. Patients enrolled in the LTE had completed one of two 12-week phase IIb PEF trials, one with MTX and one without. The primary objective of the LTE was to assess treatment-emergent adverse events and clinical laboratory evaluations for 105 weeks. As a secondary objective, an additional 2-years of effectivenes...

Safety of Baricitinib in East Asian Patients With Moderate to Severe Active Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Integrated Analysis From Clinical Trials

Chen YC, Yoo DH, Lee CK.
Int J Rheum Dis . 2020 Jan;23(1):65-73. doi: 10.1111/1756-185X.13748.

Post-hoc analyses of five completed phase II and III trials and an ongoing LTE suggested that BARI QD is well tolerated in East Asian patients with moderate-to-severe RA, with a similar safety and tolerability profile to the overall population. The majority of clinical evidence for RA treatments has been obtained from a predominantly Caucasian population, which may not be relevant to East Asian patients. In this post-hoc safety analysis, 740 Japanese, Taiwanese, Korean and Chinese patients were...

November 19

Análisis de Exposición Respuesta de Eficacia y Seguridad de Upadacitinib en Estudios de Fase 2 y 3 para Apoyar la Evaluación de Riesgo Beneficio en la Artritis Reumatoide

Nader A, Mohamed M-EF, Winzenborg I, Doelger E, Noertersheuser P, Pangan AL, Othman AA.
Clin Pharmacol Ther . 2020 Apr;107(4):994-1003. doi: 10.1002/cpt.1671.

UPA 15 mg provided the optimal benefit-risk in RA through maximizing efficacy with only small incremental benefit with 30 mg, and with consistency across RA subpopulations and with UPA monotherapy or combination with csDMARDs. Exposure-response analyses were conducted using combined data from two Phase 2b and five Phase 3 studies in order to characterise the relationship between plasma exposure and efficacy, as well as to select safety parameters using the totality of the data in subjects with...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Eficacia Comparativa de Peficitinib 25, 50, 100 y 150mg en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa: Un Metaanálisis Bayesiano en Red de Ensayos Controlados Aleatorizados

Lee YH, Song GG.
Clin Drug Investig .2020 Jan;40(1):65-72. doi: 10.1007/s40261-019-00863-9.

TOF significantly modulated the Th1 response to Varicella-zoster-virus (VZV). The poor VZV-specific cellular immune responses in patients with RA may be considered in recommendations regarding appropriate vaccination strategies for enhancing the VZV-specific Th1 response. Previous studies have shown that treatment with JAKinibs increases HZ incidence compared with conventional DMARDs. This cross-sectional in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of TOF on the VZV-specific T cell immune re...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Una revisión sistemática y metaanálisis del riesgo de infección con los inhibidores de JAK moléculas pequeñas en artritis reumatoide

Bechman K, Subesinghe S, Norton S, Atzeni F, Galli M, Cope AP, Winthrop KL, Galloway JB.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019;58(10):1755–66

Absolute serious infection rates were low. However, across the JAKinibs, the incidence of HZ is higher than expected for the population. While the risk was numerically greatest with BARI, indirect comparisons between the drugs did not demonstrate any significant difference in risk. How JAKinibs increase the risk of HZ reactivation is unclear, but how different JAKs interact in the immune response suggest that there may be differences in safety profiles between JAKinib drugs, underpinned by the...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

Eficacia Comparativa de Peficitinib 25, 50, 100 y 150mg en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa: Un Metaanálisis Bayesiano en Red de Ensayos Controlados Aleatorizados

Almanzar A, Kienle F, Schmalzing M, Maas A, Tony H-P, Prelog M.
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2019;58(11):2051–60

TOF significantly modulated the Th1 response to Varicella-zoster-virus (VZV). The poor VZV-specific cellular immune responses in patients with RA may be considered in recommendations regarding appropriate vaccination strategies for enhancing the VZV-specific Th1 response. Previous studies have shown that treatment with JAKinibs increases HZ incidence compared with conventional DMARDs. This cross-sectional in vitro study aimed to investigate the effect of TOF on the VZV-specific T cell immune re...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

October 19

Factores de Riesgo para Eventos Cardiovasculares Mayores en los Estudios de Extensión a Largo Plazo y de Fase III de Tofacitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide

Christina Charles-Schoeman, Ryan DeMasi, Hernan Valdez, Koshika Soma, Lie-Ju Hwang, Mary G Boy, Pinaki Biswas, Iain B McInnes.
Arthritis Rheumatol .2019 Sep;71(9):1450-1459. doi: 10.1002/art.40911. Epub 2019 Aug 6.

Post hoc analyses of the six ORAL studies and two LTE’s suggested that after 24 weeks of TOF treatment, increases in HDL-c and decreases in the TC/HDL-c ratio appeared to be associated with reduced future MACE risk in RA patients. 52 MACE occurred in 4076 patients over 12873 patient-years of exposure. Separate Cox regression models were used to evaluate traditional CV risk factors’ association with time to first MACE at baseline and changes in lipid levels with time to future MACE ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Real World, Cardiovascular

Translated by: Igor Koz

Changes in Lipid Levels and Incidence of Cardiovascular Events Following Tofacitinib Treatment in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis: A Pooled Analysis Across Phase 3 and Long-Term Extension Studies

Gladman DD, Charles-Schoeman C, McInnes IB, Veale DJ, Thiers B, Nurmohamed M, Graham D, Wang C, Jones T, Wolk R, DeMasi R.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2019;71(10):1387–95

Serum lipid level increases at month 3 following TOF treatment in PsA were consistent with observation in RA and psoriasis. The risk of CV disease is higher in people with PsA versus the general population – comparable with the well-documented rates seen in RA and diabetes. The reasons for this are not fully elucidated, but it has been suggested that there is an association between peripheral joint inflammation and lipid dysregulation in PsA. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from ...

Efecto de Baricitinib y Adalimumab en la Reducción del Dolor y en la Mejora de la Función en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide con Baja Actividad de la Enfermedad: Análisis Exploratorio de RA-BEAM

Fautrel B, Kirkham B, Pope JE, Takeuchi T, Gaich C, Quebe A, Zhu B, de la Torre I, De Leonardis F, Taylor PC.
J Clin Med. 2019 Sep 5;8(9). pii: E1394

Post hoc analyses from RA-BEAM concluded that BARI 4 mg QD or ADA 40 mg Q2W resulted in improvements in pain, physical function, fatigue and work productivity in patients with RA, independent of the treatment’s impact on inflammation. Among patients achieving remission or LDA, greater improvements in pain and physical function were seen with BARI than with ADA or PBO. Of 1010 patients included in the analysis at Week 24, 168 were in remission, 310 were in remission/LDA and 700 were not in...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, PRO

Translated by: Igor Koz

September 19

Resultados de la Reducción de Dosis, Retirada y Reinicio de Tofacitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide: Un Estudio Prospectivo Observacional

Mori S, Ueki Y.
Clin Rheumatol. 2019 Aug 9. DOI: 10.1007/s10067-019-04721-z

Following achievement of remission or low disease activity (LDA), a dose reduction strategy of TOF to a 5mg QD dose was preferable to immediate withdrawal of TOF, with lower relapse rates. Clinical remission or LDA early in the disease course is a target for every RA patient. Although maintaining a state of remission or LDA is beneficial to patients, the AEs and costs associated with DMARDs, have significant burdens on patients during life-long RA treatment. This long-term study was performed t...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Comparación de la Regulación de la Señalización de Citoquinas Mediada por Baricitinib, Upadactinib y Tofacitinib en Subpoblaciones de Leucocitos Humanos

McInnes IB, Byers NL, Higgs RE, Lee J, Macias WL, Na S, Ortmann RA, Rocha G, Rooney TP, Wehrman T, Zhang X, Zuckerman SH, Taylor PC.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Aug 2;21(1):183

Different JAKinibs modulated distinct cytokine pathways to varying degrees, and no agent potently or continuously inhibited an individual cytokine signalling pathway throughout the dosing interval. This study aimed to compare the in vitro cellular pharmacology of BARI, TOF and UPA across relevant leukocyte subpopulations, coupled with their in vivo PK, to determine their effects on distinct cytokine pathways. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were incubated with differen...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Preclinical, Selectivity

Translated by: Igor Koz

August 19

Eficacia y Seguridad de Peficitinib (ASP015K) en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide con Respuesta Inadecuada a Metotrexate: Resultados de un Estudio Fase III Aleatorizado, Doble-Ciego, controlado con Placebo (RAJ4) en Japán

Takeuchi T, Tanaka Y, Tanaka S, Kawakami A, Iwasaki M, Katayama K, Rokuda M, Izutsu H, Ushijima S, Kaneko Y, Shiomi T, Yamada E, van der Heijde D.
Ann Rheum Dis 2019 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215164

Peficitinib (PEF) 100 and 150 mg demonstrated robust clinical and structural efficacy in patients with RA who have an inadequate response to MTX. In Japan, two JAK inhibitors, TOF and BARI are currently available for RA patients with an inadequate response to conventional therapies. This randomized phase 3 study (RAJ4), assessed the efficacy and safety of two PEF doses in combination with MTX compared to PBO, in Japanese MTX-IR. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to PBO, PEF 100 mg and 150 mg with...

Keywords: JAK, Peficitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Koz

Efecto de FIlgonitib vs Placebo en la Respuesta Clínica en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Moderada a Grave Refractaria a una Terapia con Fármacos Antirreumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad: El Estudio Aleatorizado FINCH 2

Genovese MC, Kalunian K, Gottenberg JE, Mozaffarian N, �Bartok B, Matzkies F, Gao J, Guo Y, Tasset C, Sundy JS, de Vlam K, Walker D, Takeuchi T.
JAMA 2019 322(4):315-325

Among RA patients with an inadequate response or intolerance to bDMARDs, filgotinib (FIL) doses, compared to PBO resulted in significantly greater proportions achieving a clinical response at Wk12. Patients with active RA despite treatment with bDMARD therapy need treatment options. The FINCH 2 Phase 3 study compared the effects of FIL vs PBO for the treatment of RA patients with inadequate response or intolerance to ≥1 prior bDMARDs. Patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio, receiving FI...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Upadacitinib versus Placebo o Adalimumab en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y una Respuesta inadecuada a Metotrexate: Resultados de un Estudio de Fase 3, aleatorizado, controlado doble ciego

Fleischmann R, Pangan AL, Song IH, Mysler E, Bessette L, Peterfy C, Durez P, Ostor AJ, Li Y, Zhou Y, Othman AA, Genovese MC.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2019 DOI: 10.1002/art.41032

UPA demonstrated superiority to ADA in terms of clinical, functional and patient-reported outcomes with comparable radiographic inhibition. As many RA patients fail to achieve LDA and remission with TNF inhibitors and MTX there is a requirement for additional treatment options. In this SELECT-COMPARE study the clinical and functional outcomes of UPA were compared to ADA in MTX-IR patients. 1629 MTX-IR were randomly assigned 2:2:1 to; UPA 15mg QD, ADA 40mg Q2W or PBO, with background MTX. Key e...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Seguridad y Efectividad de Upadacitinib o Adalimumab más Metotrexate en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide: Más de 48 Semanas de Troca para una Terapia Alternativa con Respuesta Insuficiente

Fleischmann RM, Genovese MC,  Enejosa JV,  Mysler E, Bessette L, Peterfy C,  Ostor P,  Li Y,  Song I.
Ann Rheum Dis 2019 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2019-215764

Consistent with Wk26 data, significantly more UPA patients achieved LDA and remission versus ADA and PBO over 48 weeks. RA patients often change therapy due to inadequate response and intolerance. The SELECT COMPARE study was designed to explore switching to JAK inhibitors from TNF inhibitors without a wash-out period (and vice versa). The long-term safety and efficacy of UPA was compared to ADA and PBO in MTX-IR. 1629 patients were blindly assigned 2:2:1 to; UPA 15mg QD, ADA 40mg Q2W and PBO, ...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

July 19

Vacuna Viva Zoster en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Tratados con Tofacitinib con o sin Metotrexato, o Adalimumab con Metotrexato

Calabrese LH, Abud-Mendoza C, Lindsey SM, Lee SH, Tatulych S, Takiya L, Iikuni N, Soma K, Luo Z, Fleischmann R.
Arthritis Care and Research 2019 DOI: 10.1002/acr.24010

Live zoster vaccine (LZV) was well tolerated, and herpes zoster (HZ) incidence rates were generally similar between treatment groups in vaccinated versus non-vaccinated patients in a subset of RA who received LZV before TOF ± MTX, or ADA + MTX, in ORAL Strategy. It is known that patient with RA are at increased risk of developing HZ though the mechanisms behind this are currently not well understood though therapies, such as TOF, are thought to increase the risk. ACR and EULAR recommend...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Desenlaces Clínicos en Pacientes que Cambiaron de Adalimumab a Baricitinib debido a falta de respuesta y/o Diseño del Estudio: Fase 3 en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide

Tanaka Y, Fautrel B, Keystone EC, Ortmann RA, Xie L, Zhu B, Issa M, Patel H, Gaich CL, de Bono S, Rooney TP, Taylor PC.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Jul;78(7):890-898.

Switching from ADA to BARI without a lengthy washout period can be executed with acceptable safety and tolerability and was associated with maintained disease control. Switching therapies in RA is commonplace in myriad scenarios including inadequate responses, intolerances and patient preference. Assessing the safety and efficacy of new treatments such as BARI, in the context of use as a replacement therapy, is beneficial. A previous study (RA-BEACON) has demonstrated that safely switching fro...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor

June 19

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib for Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Naïve to Methotrexate Therapy: FINCH 3 Primary Outcome Results

Westhovens R, Rigby WFC, van der Heijde D, Ching DWT, Bartok B, Matzkies F, Yin Z, Guo Y, Tasset C, Sundy JS, Mozaffarian N, Messina OD, Landewé RBM, Atsumi T, Burmester GR.
EULAR 2019 Abstract LB0003 Presentation

Filgotinib is an orally administered, selective inhibitor of JAK1. Filgotinib has shown good efficacy and was well tolerated for the treatment of RA in Phase 2 and 3 studies evaluating MTX-IR or bDMARD-IR patients. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of filgotinib with and without MTX in patients with RA who were naïve to MTX therapy.

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib for Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis With Inadequate Response to Methotrexate: FINCH 1 Primary Outcome Results

Combe BG, Kivitiz AJ, Tanaka Y, van der Heijde D, Matzkies F, Bartok B, Ye L, Guo Y, Tasset C, Sundy JS, Mozaffarian N, Landewé RBM, Bae SC, Keystone EC, Nash P.
EULAR 2019 Abstract LB0001 Presentation

Filgotinib is an orally administered, selective inhibitor of JAK1. Filgotinib has shown good efficacy and was well tolerated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Phase 2 studies.The objective of this Phase 3 study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of filgotinib treatment in patients with RA who have had an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX).

Efficacy and Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the BTK Inhibitor Evobrutinib in Autoimmune Disease Models

Haselmayer P, Camps M, Liu-Bujalski L, Nguyen N, Morandi F, Head J, O’Mahony A, Zimmerli SC, Bruns L, Bender AT, Schroeder P, Grenningloh.
J Immunol 2019;202:2888–2906. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1800583

BTK is involved in both adaptive and innate immune responses and mediates signalling of several immune receptors of relevance to RA and SLE pathogenesis. Targeting BTK is a promising approach therefore for autoimmune disorders with aberrant B cell responses. Evobrutinib is a novel, highly specific, and irreversible BTK inhibitor. In vivo and animal models showed that evobrutinib modulated B cell and innate immune cell activation, was efficacious, and prevented joint damage. The potency of evob...

Impacto de los Inhibidores de Janus Quinasa en el Riesgo de Eventos Cardiovasculares en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide: Revisión Sistemática y Metaanálisis de Ensayos Controlados Aleatorizados

Xie W, Huang Y, Xiao S, Sun X, Fan Y, Zhang Z.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Aug;78(8):1048-1054.

Existing evidence from RCTs indicated no significant change in CV risk for JAK inhibitor (JAKinib) treated RA patients in a short-term perspective compared to placebo. Patients with RA have an elevated risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which cannot be fully explained by traditional CV risk factors. Reaching remission or LDA in order to reduce CV events (CVE) is encouraged in the current EULAR recommendations. JAKinibs and their roles in the modulation of CV risk remain undetermined. This stud...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Upadacitinib as Monotherapy in Patients with Active Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inadequate Response to Methotrexate (SELECT-MONOTHERAPY): A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Phase 3 Study

Smolen JS, Pangan AL, Emery P, Rigby W, Tanaka Y, Vargas JI, Zhang Y, Damjanov N, Friedman A, Othman AA, Camp HS, Cohen S.
Lancet. 2019 Jun 8;393(10188):2303-2311

UPA monotherapy showed statistically significant improvements in clinical and functional outcomes versus continuing MTX in MTX inadequate-responder patients with RA. Despite its proven effectiveness and safety, many patients are unable to tolerate MTX due to its side-effects. Therapies that can be used without concomitant MTX therefore, have an important place in RA management. In previous studies, UPA has shown efficacy in combination with stable background csDMARDs in RA patients who are DMA...

May 19

Una Revisión Sistemática y Metaanálisis del Riesgo de Infecciones con Moléculas Pequeñas Inhibidoras de JAK en Artritis Reumatoide

Bechman K, Subesinghe S, Norton S, Atzeni F, Galli M, Cope AP, Winthrop KL, Galloway JB.
Rheumatology (Oxford). DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kez087

How JAKinibs increase the risk of HZ reactivation is unclear. Roles of different JAKs in the immune response may suggest differences in safety profiles between drugs, underpinned by their differential JAK selectivity profiles. The authors undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate SI and opportunistic indicator infections including HZ in RA Phase II/III clinic trials with JAKinibs. A literature review of RCT of TOF (5 mg BID), BARI (4 mg OD) and UPA (15 mg OD) was conducted. A...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Safety and Efficacy of Tofacitinib For Up to 9.5 Years in The Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Final Results of a Global, Open-Label, Long-Term Extension Study

Wollenhaupt J, Lee EB, Curtis JR, Silverfield J, Terry K, Soma K, Mojcik C, DeMasi R, Strengholt S, Kwok K, Lazariciu I, Wang L, Cohen S.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Apr 5;21(1):89.

TOF 5 mg and 10mg BID demonstrated a consistent safety profile and sustained efficacy for up to 9.5 years in this open-label LTE ORAL Sequel study. TOF 5 mg and 10 mg BID demonstrated consistent safety (as monotherapy and combination therapy) and efficacy within this open-label LTE study of RA patients. As RA requires long-term treatment, it’s important to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of RA therapies to understand the potential lifelong impact on patient health and quality of ...

Evaluación de las Respuestas Vacunales Neumocócica y Antitetánica en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide recibiendo Baricitinib: Resultados de un Subestudiode Extensión

Winthrop KL, Bingham CO III, Komocsar WJ, Bradley J, Issa M, Klar R, Kartman CE.
Arthritis Res Ther. 2019 Apr 18;21(1):102

Approximately two thirds of long-term BARI treated patients achieved satisfactory humoral and functional responses to 13-serotype pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13), whereas tetanus toxoid vaccine (TTV) responses were less robust. Both RA management guidelines and recommendations suggest vaccinating patients with RA against pneumococcal disease with PCV-13 and PPSV-23. The inhibition of the JAK mediated signal transduction pathways in RA treatment could diminish vaccine responses. Given t...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

April 19

Tuberculosis, Hepatitis B y Herpes Zoster en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide tratados con Tofacitinib

Zhang Z, Deng W, Wu Q, Sun L.
Immunotherapy. 2019 Mar;11(4):321-333.

The risk of TB and hepatitis B virus (HBV) appears to be no greater with TOF than with bDMARDs. Most cases of TB during TOF studies occurred in regions with high background rate of TB, including east Asian countries. TOF is also associated with a higher rate of herpes zoster (HZ) compared with bDMARDs. DMARDs used to treat RA can increase the risk of infections by causing a degree of immunosuppression. A range of bacterial and viral infections have been observed in association with DMARD thera...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Datos de Eficacia y Seguridad Basados en Historial Medico o Enfermedades Pre-Existentes en el Baseline de Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa Tratados con Baricitinib

Combe B, Balsa A, Sarzi-Puttini P, Tony HP, de la Torre I, Rogai V, Durand F, Witt S, Zhong J, Dougados M.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Aug;78(8):1135-1138.

In a post-hoc analysis, BARI 4 mg showed similar efficacy and safety during placebo-controlled and LTE observation periods regardless of the presence or absence of select comorbidities in RA patients. Patients with RA have a high prevalence of comorbidities. This post-hoc analysis investigated the effect of select comorbidities (depression, osteoporosis, hepatic, cardiovascular or pulmonary disorders) on the efficacy and safety of BARI 4 mg QD in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA and i...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

March 19

Perfil de Seguridad de Baricitinib en Pacientes Japoneses con Artritis Reumatoide Activa con más de 1.6 años de Tiempo Medio de Tratamiento: Un análisis integrado de Estudios Fase 2 y 3

Harigai M, Takeuchi T, Smolen JS, Winthrop KL, Nishikawa A, Rooney TP, Saifan CG, Issa M, Isaka Y, Akashi N, Ishii T, Tanaka Y.
Mod Rheumatol. 2019 Feb 20:1-23. DOI: 10.1080/14397595.2019.1583711

In this integrated analysis, BARI showed an acceptable safety profile in Japanese patients with up to 3.2 years of exposure. Other than incidences of herpes zoster (HZ), no major differences were noted with BARI safety in Japanese patients with RA, compared to the patients in the integrated database. BARI has previously demonstrated significant clinical efficacy and acceptable safety. Japanese patients who participated in the BARI clinical development programme, were comparable to those from th...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Baricitinib induce incrementos en LDL-C y HDL-C en Artritis Reumatoide: Un Metaanálisis en red de Ensayos Clínicos Aleatorizados

Qiu C, Zhao X, She L, Shi Z, Deng Z, Tan L, Tu X, Jiang S, Tang B.
Lipids Health Dis. 2019 Feb 18;18(1):54.

This study confirmed that BARI induced a stable dose-dependent increase in LDL-C and HDL-C levels. There was no significant difference of CV risk between BARI and placebo groups. High risk of CV events is strongly associated with RA. Mechanisms underlying the excess risk of CV events in RA remains unclear. This study aims to provide additional insight into the clinical safety of BARI, focusing on the effects of BARI on LDL-C and HDL-C levels and CV risk. A Cochrane analysis was performed on s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Metanálisis en Red de Tofacitinib versus Tratamientos Biológicos en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Moderada a Grave

Camean‐Castillo M, Gimeno‐Ballester V, Rios‐Sanchez E, Fenix‐Caballero S, Vázquez‐Real M, Alegre‐del Rey E.
J Clin Pharm Ther. 2019 Jun;44(3):384-396.

This study suggests that many bDMARDs and tsDMARDs can be considered equivalent therapeutic alternatives in bDMARD-naïve RA patients, with inadequate response to csDMARDs. In the absence of randomised controlled trials comparing drugs, indirect comparisons and network meta-analysis may provide information to help select an optimal treatment alternative. In this network meta-analysis, 27 randomized controlled trials were analysed to assess the possibility that some drugs on the market may b...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor

February 19

Risk of Serious Infection in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis in Routine Care with Abatacept, Rituximab and Tocilizumab in Denmark and Sweden

Grøn KL, Arkema EV, Glintborg B, Mehnert F, Østergaard M, Dreyer L, Nørgaard M, Krogh NS, Askling J, Hetland ML, ARTIS Study Group.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Mar;78(3):320-327. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-214326

Differences in baseline characteristics and numerical differences in IR of SI between ABA, RRTX and TOZ were observed. The relative risk (RR) of SIs seemed to vary modestly with drug. TNFi treated RA patients in large observational studies have suggested an initial twofold increased risk of SIs compared with biologic-naïve patients. Long-term observational studies on the risk of SIs in patients treated with non-TNFi bDMARDs are sparse. This study aimed to estimate crude as well as age and...

Comparisons of Hepatitis C Viral Replication in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Receiving Tocilizumab, Abatacept and Tofacitinib Therapy

Chen YM, Huang WN, Liao TL, Chen JP, Yang SS, Chen HH, Hsieh TY, Hung WT, Chen YH, Chen DY.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Jun;78(6):849-850.

Tocilizumab (TCZ), abatacept (ABA) and tofacitinib (TOF) appear to have no major safety concerns for treatment of RA patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. HCV is an infectious disease which continues to present a major therapeutic challenge for clinicians in treating patients with RA. Previous reports demonstrate that the use of TNF targeted therapies in RA patients with HCV infections appear to have no major safety concerns. During short-term therapy with TCZ and ABA, data has show...

Tofacitinib in Combination with Methotrexate in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Clinical Efficacy, Radiographic and Safety Outcomes from the 24-Month Phase 3 ORAL Scan Study

van der Heijde D, Strand V, Tanaka Y, Keystone E, Kremer J, Zerbini CAF, Cardiel MH, Stanley Cohen S, Nash P, Song YW, Tegzová D, Gruben D, Wallenstein G, Connell CA, Fleischmann R, ORAL Scan investigators.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jun;71(6):878-891

RA patients receiving TOF 5 or 10 mg BID plus MTX showed sustained clinical and radiographic treatment effects through months 12-24. The safety profile was consistent with previous TOF studies. The 12-month data from the ORAL Scan study have been previously reported. This report assesses durability of responses, including structural damage progression, and safety with TOF through 24 months. Patients were randomized 4:4:1:1 to receive TOF 5 or 10 mg BID, or PBO advanced to TOF with stable, ba...

Cardiovascular Safety During Treatment with Baricitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Taylor PC, Weinblatt ME, Burmester GR, Rooney TP, Witt S, Walls CD, Issa M, Salinas CA, Saifan C, Zhang X, Cardoso A, González-Gay MA, Takeuchi T.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Jul;71(7):1042-1055.

This study indicates no association between exposure to BARI and MACE, arterial thrombotic events (ATE), or congestive heart failure (CHF). Overall IRs for venous thromboembolic event (VTE) in BARI-treated patients falls within the reported range for patients with RA. RA patients have a greater risk of cardiovascular (CV) diseases of arterial ischemic origin, and an increased risk of VTE. Studied frequencies of thromboembolic events in RA populations in the last decade has been reported as 2&nd...

January 19

Análisis agrupado de la seguridad de Tofacitinib como monoterapia o en combinación con Fármacos Antirreumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad Convencionales de base en una Población de Fase 3 con Artritis Reumatoide

Kivitz AJ, Cohen S, Keystone E, van Vollenhoven RF, Haraoui B, Kaine J, Fan H, Connell CA, Bananis E, Takiya L, Fleischmann R.
Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2018 Dec;48(3):406-415. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2018.07.006.

In this pooled analysis of Phase 3 Tofacitinib (TOF) trials, safety profiles were generally similar between patients receiving monotherapy and combination therapy. Although selected adverse events of interest showed lower incidence rates (IRs) for TOF monotherapy patients. TOF has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with csDMARDs. In this post-hoc analysis, data were pooled from six Phase 3 TOF studies in RA patients to further examine the safety profile when used as monotherapy or i...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Caracterización y Cambios en Subconjuntos de Linfocitos en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Tratados con Baricitinib: Un Análisis Integrado

Tanaka Y, McInnes IB, Taylor PC, Byers NL, Chen L, de Bono S, Issa M, Macias WL, Rogai V, Rooney TP, Schlichting DE, Zuckerman SH, Emery P.
Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Dec;70(12):1923-1932. doi: 10.1002/art.40680

This review shows that changes in lymphocyte subsets were largely within normal reference ranges and were not associated with efficacy or safety end points. BARI is a selective JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, approved for the treatment of moderate to severe RA. BARI treatment is associated with changes to circulating lymphocyte and lymphocyte subsets, however detailed analyses of these effects, and their relevance to efficacy and safety is lacking. This study investigated the changes in lymphocyte cell s...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Riesgo Comparativo de Tromboembolismo Venoso con Tofacitinib versus con Inhibidor de Factor de Necrosis Tumoral: Un Estudio de Cohorte de Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide

Desai RJ, Pawar A, Weinblatt ME, Kim SC.
Desai RJ, et al. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 June;71(6):892-900.

Occurrences of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in 50, 865 RA patients initiating Tofacitinib (TOF) or a TNF inhibitor (TNFi) was infrequent. No significant risk of VTE for TOF versus TNFi was observed. Safety concerns of JAK inhibitor BARI include potentially increased risk of VTE at the higher 4 mg dose. It’s unclear if this is attributable to JAK-inhibition and extends to TOF. This study compared the risk of VTE with TOF, versus TNFi in real-world settings with RA patients. RA patients in...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

December 18

Evaluación de Efectos a Corto, Medio y Largo-plazo de Tofacitinib en Linfocitos de Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide

van Vollenhoven R, Lee EB, Strengholt S, Mojcik C, Valdez H, Krishnaswami S, Biswas P, Lazariciu I, Hazra A, Clark JD, Hodge J, Wang L, Choy E.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2018 DOI: 10. 1002/art.40780

Tofacitinib (TOF) treatment is associated with short-term transient increases in absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC), followed by a gradual decline to reach steady state by ~48 months. Changes in both ALC and lymphocyte subset counts (LSC) were reversible upon TOF discontinuation. Low ALC but not LSC were associated with an increased risk of serious infective episodes (SIEs) and herpes zoster (HZ). This data supported the treatment recommendations on ALC counts for starting and continuing therapy w...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor

Influencia de la Edad y del Daño Renal en la Farmacocinética de Estado Estable de Filgotinib, un inhibidor selectivo de JAK1

Namour F, Fagard L, Van der AA, Harrison P, Xin Y, Tasset C.
Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 Dec;84(12):2779-2789. DOI:10.1111/bcp.13726

Age and renal impairment (RI) had limited impact on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of filgotinib (FIL) but, in subjects with severe RI, exposure to the FIL metabolite was increased. FIL is a selective JAK1 inhibitor that is extensively, rapidly and proportionately absorbed after oral dosing from 50–200mg. Its major metabolite has a similar JAK1 selectivity profile but with reduced potency. In humans, exposure to the metabolite is higher by approximately 16–20 fold compared with the pare...

Keywords: JAK, Filgotinib, Preclinical, PK-PD

Translated by: Igor

November 18

Seguridad y Eficacia de Baricitinib en Pacientes Recibiendo Fármacos Antirreumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad o Corticoides

van Vollenhoven R, Helt C, Arora V, Zhong J, Correia AP, de la Torre I, Muram D.
Rheumatol Ther 2018 Dec;5(2):525-536. DOI 10.1007/s40744-018-0128-0

Baricitinib (BARI) in combination with MTX and concomitant csDMARDs was shown to be efficacious, regardless of corticosteroid use in RA patients. MTX is prescribed to most RA patients but concomitant csDMARDs and/or corticosteroids can be added. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of BARI in two arms; with/without corticosteroids and; with MTX only/MTX plus csDMARD/csDMARDs only. Baseline characteristics and adverse reactions were also compared. Data were pooled from two phase 3 studie...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

Herpes Zoster con Tofacitinib está aún más Aumentado con Glucocorticoides pero no con Metotrexate

Curtis JR, Xie F, Yang S, Bernatsky S, Chen L, Yun H, Winthrop K.
Arthritis Care Res 2018 DOI 10.1002/acr.23769

The rate of Herpes Zoster (HZ) in tofacitinib (TOF) users with concomitant glucocorticoids (GC) was approximately double that of other TOF combination therapies. TOF is an effective treatment for RA. Increased HZ risk has been observed with the use of JAK inhibitors, whereas the HZ risk with biologics and targeted RA therapies are comparable. This study evaluated the HZ risk in TOF users according to concomitant GC, MTX, both, or neither. MarketScan and Medicare data were used to identify 8030 ...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Ankylosing Spondylitis (TORTUGA): Results from a Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial

Van der Heijde D, Baraliakos X, Gensler LS, Maksymowych WP, Tseluyko V, Nadashkevich O, Abi-Saab W, Tasset C, Meuleners L, Besuyen R, Hendrikx T, Mozafarian N, Liu K, Greer JM, Deodhar A, Landewé R.
Lancet 2018 Dec 1;392(10162):2378-2387. DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32463-2

In this first clinical trial of filgotinib in patients with active AS, filgotinib significantly reduced disease activity, and the signs and symptoms of AS compared with placebo. The TORTUGA trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial, that enrolled 263 adult patients from 30 sites in seven countries. Patients with active AS and an inadequate response or intolerance to two or more NSAIDs were assigned 1:1 to receive filgotinib 200 mg or placebo once daily for 12 week...

Efficacy and Safety of Filgotinib, a Selective Janus Kinase 1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Active Psoriatic Arthritis (EQUATOR): Results from a Randomised, Placebo-controlled, Phase 2 Trial

Mease P, Coates LC, Helliwell PS, Stanislavchuk M, Rychlewska-Hanczewska A, Dudek A, Abi-Saab W, Tasset C, Meuleners L, Harrison P, Besuyen R, Van der Aa A, Mozafarian N, Greer JM, Kunder R, Van den Bosch F, Gladman DD.
Lancet. 2018 Dec 1;392(10162):2367-2377. DOI 10.1016/ S0140-6736(18)32483-8

In this first clinical trial of filgotinib in patients with PsA, filgotinib was effective in treating the signs and symptoms of active PsA across various disease manifestations. The EQUATOR trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase 2 trial, that enrolled 191 adult patients from 25 sites in seven countries. Patients with active moderate-to-severe PsA and an insufficient response or intolerance to at least one csDMARD were assigned 1:1 to receive filgotinib 200 mg or placebo...

October 18

Comparación de la Eficácia y Seguridad de Tofacitinib y Baricitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa: Un Metaanálisis Bayesiano en Red de Ensayos Controlados Aleatorizados

Bae SC and Lee YH.
Z Rheumatol. 2018 Sep 6. DOI 10.1007/s00393-018-0531-5

Tofacitinib (TOF) 10mg and baricitinib (BARI) 4mg, in combination with methotrexate (MTX), were the most efficacious treatments in RA patients with an inadequate response to DMARDs or biologics. Both combination treatments presented acceptable safety profiles and were not associated with a significant risk of serious adverse events. This study employed a Bayesian approach to Meta-Analysis; combining the available evidence across a network of Randomised Controlled trials (RCTs). Twelve RCTs cont...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

Reducción de Dosis de Baricitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Logrando Controle Sostenido de la Enfermedad: Resultados de un Estudio Prospectivo

Takeuchi T, Genovese MC, Haraoui B, Li Z, Xie L, Klar R, Pinto Correia A, Otawa S, Lopez-Romero P, de la Torre I, Rooney TP, Smolen JS.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Feb;78(2):171-178. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2018-213271

In active RA patients, with an inadequate response (IR) to DMARDs who achieve low disease activity (LDA) following baricitinib (BARI) 4 mg treatment, disease control is better maintained with continued BARI 4 mg compared to tapering to 2 mg. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of BARI tapering in patients achieving sustained disease control with BARI 4 mg. In the long-term extension study RA-BEYOND, patients receiving BARI 4 mg who achieved sustained LDA or remission at two...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

Perfil de Seguridad de Baricitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa con más de 2 Años de Tiempo Mediano de Tratamiento

Smolen J, Genovese M, Takeuchi T, Hyslop D, Macias W, Rooney T, Chen L, Dickson C, Riddle Camp J, Cardillo T, Ishii T and Winthrop K.
J Rheumatol. 2019 Jan;46(1):7-18. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.171361

Baricitinib (BARI) showed an acceptable 5.5-year safety profile in this integrated analysis of patients with moderate-to-severe, active RA. This study evaluated the safety profile of the oral, once daily Janus kinase inhibitor, BARI, in adults with moderately to severely active RA. Data from eight randomised clinical trials and one long-term extension study were pooled and analysed for placebo comparison and dose response. There were 3492 patients who received BARI for a total of 6637 patient-y...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

September 18

Progresión del Daño Estructural en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Temprana Tratados con Metotrexato, Baricitinib, o Baricitinib más Metotrexato Basada en Respuesta Clínica del Estudio Fase 3 RA-BEGIN

van der Heijde D, Durez P, Schett G, Naredo E, Østergaard M, Meszros G, De Leonardis F, De La Torre I, López-Romero P, Schlichting D, Nantz E, Fleichmann R.
Clinical Rheumatology 2018;37:2381–90 DOI 10.1007/s10067-018-4221-0

Patients with active RA and little or no prior DMARD treatment, who achieved sustained clinical responses, were less likely to show structural damage progression, irrespective of treatment. RA-BEGIN was a 52-week double-blind, multicentre Phase 3 trial, which assessed the safety and efficacy of BARI as monotherapy or in combination with MTX versus MTX monotherapy, in RA patients with no or limited prior DMARDs use.1-4 This post-hoc analysis evaluated the structural damage progression in patients...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Perfil de Lípidos y Efecto de Tratamiento con Estatinas en Agrupamiento de Estudios Fase II y Fase II de Baricitinib

Taylor PC, Kremer JM, Emery P, Zuckerman SH, Ruotolo G, Zhong J, Chen L, Witt S, Saifan C, Kurzawa M, Otvos JD, Connelly MA, Macias WL, Schlichting DE, Rooney TP, de Bono S, McInnes IB.
Ann Rheum Dis. 2018 Jul;77(7):988-995. DOI 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212461

Baricitinib (BARI) was associated with increased lipid levels; baseline statins did not alter these profiles. The introduction of statins during treatment reduced total cholesterol and LDL-C. The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in RA patients has been shown to alter lipid levels and is associated with reduced atherogenic risk. Increases in lipid levels, specifically HDL-C and LDL-C, have been observed in Phase 2 BARI studies1. This study analysed data from seven randomised RA Phase 2/3 studies o...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Real World, Cardiovascular

Translated by: Igor Kos

Respuesta Sostenida Siguiendo Discontinuación de Metotrexato en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Tratados con Tocilizumab Subcutáneo

Kremer JM, Rigby W, Singer NG, Birchwood C, Gill D, Reiss W, Pei J, Michalska M.
Arthritis Rheumatol 2018;70:1200–08 DOI 10.1002/art.40493

The COMP-ACT study showed patients achieving low disease activity (LDA) with tocilizumab (TCZ) plus methotrexate (MTX) can discontinue MTX, while maintaining disease control for up to 16 weeks. Previous studies have shown TCZ to be efficacious as a monotherapy or in combination with MTX in patients with RA1,2. Patients frequently discontinue taking DMARDs, such as MTX, due to intolerance or adverse events. COMP-ACT is a randomised, double-blind, 52-week study evaluating the sustained efficacy of...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Eficacia de la Monoterapia con Biológicos e Inhibidores JAK para el Tratamiento de Artritis Reumatoide Una Revisión Sistemática

Emery P, Pope JE, Kruger K, Lippe R, DeMasi R, Lula S, Kola B.
ADV Ther 2018; 35(10):1525–63 DOI: 10.1007/s12325-018-0757-2

The b/tsDMARDs evaluated in this systematic literature review (SLR) were shown to be efficacious as monotherapies, although combination therapies usually achieved better treatment outcomes. Current treatment guidelines recommend combining b/tsDMARDs with MTX in the treatment of RA; however, up to a third of patients are treated with monotherapy. While previous SLRs1–3 have compared the efficacy of b/tsDMARD mono- versus MTX combination therapy they covered a limited number of randomised co...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

August 18

Discontinuación de Tocilizumab después de lograr remisión en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide con Tratamiento con Tocilizumab Sólo o en Combinación con Metotrexate: Resultados de un Estudio Prospectivo Aleatorizado Controlado (el segundo año del estudio SURPRISE)

Kaneko Y, Kato M, Tanaka Y, Inoo M, Kobayashi-Haraoka H, Amano K, Miyata M, Murakawa Y, Yasuoka H, Hirata S, Tanaka E, Miyasaka N, Yamanaka H, Yamamoto K, Takeuchi T, the SURPRISE study group.
Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77:1268–1275 DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/key121

The second-year results from the SURPRISE study show that low disease activity (LDA) can be maintained after discontinuation of tocilizumab with continued methotrexate after remission is achieved. Discontinuation of biologic agents in patients who have achieved remission or low disease activity (LDA) is desirable from a risk–benefit point of view. Compared with TNF inhibitors, little is known regarding TCZ-free remission or LDA, but studies indicate that only a small proportion of patien...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Clinical, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos

Dos Años de Sarilumab en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide y una Respuesta Inadecuada a MTX, Seguridad, Eficacia y Resultados Radiográficos

Genovese MC, van Adelsberg J, Fan C, Graham NMH, van Hoogstraten H, Parrino J, Mangan EK, Spindler A, Huizinga TWJ, van der Heijde D, for the EXTEND study investigators.
Rheumatology 2018;57:1423–1431 DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/key121

Two-year treatment of active, moderate-to-severe RA with sarilumab, along with dose reduction in the event of laboratory abnormalities, resulted in durable efficacy outcomes and a safety profile consistent with previous reports involving IL-6R inhibition. Durable long-term safety and efficacy, reduced joint damage progression, and conserving health-related quality of life and work productivity are important goals of therapy in RA.1 Sarilumab significantly reduced disease activity, improved phy...

Keywords: IL-6, Sarilumab, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

Eventos Adversos, Consideraciones Clinicas y Recomendaciones de Manejo en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide tratados con Inhibidores JAK

Atzeni F, Talotta R, Nucera V, Marino F, Gerratana E, Sangari D, Masala IF, Sarzi-Puttini P.
Exp Rev Clin Immunol 2018 Nov;14(11):945-956. DOI: 10.1080/1744666X.2018.1504678

Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are efficacious in patients with moderate-to-severe RA and have a favourable safety profile. However adverse events (AE), in particular infections, are associated with the use of JAK inhibitors. This paper reviews the mechanism behind JAK inhibitors, the AEs associated with them, and provides consideration in the management of AEs in clinical practice. Data on two RA approved JAK inhibitors – tofacitinib (TOF) and baricitinib (BARI) – was obtained usin...

Keywords: JAK, Tofacitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

July 18

Sarilumab para Pacientes Previamente Tratados con Artritis Reumatoide Moderada o Grave: La Perspectiva de un Grupo de Revisión de Evidencia de Evaluación de Tecnología Única de Nice

Bermejo I, Ren S, Simpson E, Clowes M, Scott DL, Young A, Stevenson M.
Pharmacoeconomics. 2018 Dec;36(12):1427-1437. doi: 10.1007/s40273-018-0677-7

In this National Institute for Health and Care (NICE) single technology appraisal of sarilumab (SAR) monotherapy and combination therapy with methotrexate (MTX), SAR was considered to have similar efficacy to other bDMARDs for treating moderate-to-severe RA with inadequate response to cDMARDs or TNFis. SAR was also considered a cost-effective use of National Health Service (NHS) resources versus some or all of its comparators in most considered populations. NICE is an independent organisation r...

Keywords: IL-6, Sarilumab, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

Tromboembolismos con Inhibidores de Quinasa Janus (JAK) para Artritis Reumatoide: ¿Cuán real es el Riesgo?

Scott IC, Hider SL, Scott DL.
Drug Safety 2018 Jul;41(7):645–53

Current data suggests that JAK inhibitors may increase the risk of thromboembolism and pulmonary thrombosis (PT) in RA. Two JAK inhibitors – baricitinib (BARI) and tofacitinib (TOF) – are considered effective treatments for RA, however, there are concerns about the thromboembolic risks associated with them. In August 2017, the summary of product characteristics for BARI was revised to include a warning of developing DVT and pulmonary embolism (PE), with recommendations that BARI sho...

Keywords: JAK, Baricitinib, Clinical, Safety

Translated by: Igor Kos

Seguridad y Eficacia de Upadacitinib en Pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide Activa Refractaria a Fármacos Anti-Reumaticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad Biológicos (SELECT-BEYOND) un Ensayo Aleatorizado Controlado Fase 3

Genovese MC, Fleischmann R, Combe B, Hall S, Rubbert-Roth A, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Mohamed M-EF, Meerwein S, Pangan AL.
Lancet 2018;391:2513–24

Upadacitinib (UPA) extended release formulation was effective in treating patients with moderate-to-severe RA with an inadequate response to bDMARDs. Phase 2 study data has shown that UPA is an efficacious and safe treatment for active RA.1,2 SELECT-BEYOND was a double-blind, long-term extension, Phase 3 study to assess the efficacy of UPA in patients with RA who were bDMARD-IR. The first 12-weeks of SELECT-BEYOND were placebo-controlled, with a double-blind period followed by an ongoing double...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

Seguridad y Eficacia de Upadacitinib en pacientes con Artritis Reumatoide con Respuesta Inadecuada a Fármacos Anti-Reumáticos Modificadores de la Enfermedad (SELECT-NEXT): un Ensayo Aleatorizado, Doble Ciego, Controlado-Placebo Fase 3

Burmester GR, Kremer JM, Van den Bosch F, Kivitz A, Bessette L, Li Y, Zhou Y, Othman AA, Pangan AL, Camp HS.
Lancet 2018;391:2503–12

Patients with moderate-to-severe active RA had significant improvements in clinical signs and symptoms with upadacitinib (UPA) compared with placebo. In Phase 2 studies, UPA showed favourable efficacy when administered twice daily as an immediate-release formulation at doses of 6–12 mg in patients with active RA who had TNFi-IR.1,2 An extended-release formulation allowing once-daily (QD) administration was developed for Phase 3 studies. SELECT-NEXT was a double-blind, multicentre, Phase 3...

Keywords: JAK, Upadacitinib, Clinical, Phase 3

Translated by: Igor Kos

June 18

Características de los Pacientes influencian la elección de fármaco biológico en AR, y harán los biológicos no-TNFi aparentaren más nocivos que biológicos TNFi

Frisell T, Baecklund E, Bengtsson K, Giuseppe DD, Forsblad-d’Elia H, Askling J, on behalf of the ARTIS Study Group.
Ann Rheum Dis 2018; 77:650–57 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2017-212395

Analysis of patient characteristics revealed that older and less healthy patients with RA were more likely to receive non-TNFi bDMARDs as a first bDMARD compared to other treatments. This study aimed to describe patient characteristics at initiation of bDMARD treatment at two-time points: first bDMARD initiation and switch to second bDMARD after TNFi treatment. The second aim of the study was to estimate the potential of treatment channelling to confound results in comparative treatment studies...

Keywords: IL-6, Tocilizumab, Real World, Efficacy

Translated by: Igor Kos