Oral surveillance and JAK inhibitor safety: the theory of relativity

Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1038/s41584-022-00767-7

Putting the data into context, Winthrop, et al. conclude that the ORAL Surveillance data are not dissimilar to those from the original developmental programme, which suggested additional safety concerns at the 10 mg dosage and that resulted in the 5 mg twice daily dosage as the approved dose for RA.Following the recent results of the ORAL Surveillance (ORALSURV) study, and the consequent changes to the utilisation of JAKinibs, made by the regulatory authorities, Winthrop, et al. aim to put the O...

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Evaluation of response to 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccination in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving upadacitinib: results from a phase 2 open-label extension study

RMD Open. 2022;8(1):e002110 doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2021-002110

Vaccine sub-study of the BALANCE-EXTEND upadacitinib trial finds that approximately two-thirds of patients receiving upadacitinib 15 mg once-daily achieve a satisfactory humoral response to pneumococcal 13-valent conjugate (PCV-13) vaccine, despite receiving concomitant methotrexate (MTX).It is well known that a weakened immune response, comorbidities and immunosuppressant drug therapy all contribute to an increased susceptibility to infections in patients with RA. Likewise, the morbidity and mo...

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The effect of secukinumab on patient-reported outcomes in patients with active psoriatic arthritis in a randomised phase 3 trial

Lancet. 2022. Epub ahead of print

Predefined analysis of FUTURE 5, the largest Phase 3 randomised trial of secukinumab in patients with PsA to date, demonstrates that secukinumab results in early, statistically significant, clinically meaningful, sustained improvements in PROs across all doses, compared with placebo.The fully human anti-interleukin 17A monoclonal antibody, secukinumab has shown clinical and radiographical efficacy in patients with PsA, yet the clinical significance of improvements across a wide variety of PROs r...

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Baricitinib further enhances disease-modifying effects by uncoupling the link between disease activity and joint structural progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Ann Rheum Dis. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221323

Baricitinib reduces structural damage progression versus placebo with background MTX and/or MTX, even in patients with moderate or high disease activity.In patients with RA, TNFi, IL-6i and rituximab have been shown to uncouple the link between disease activity and radiographic progression such that patients are protected from structural damage progression even if remission/low disease activity is not achieved.As such, Lopez-Romero, et al. aimed to evaluate if baricitinib further enhances diseas...

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Long-term safety and efficacy of upadacitinib or adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: results through 3 years from the SELECT-COMPARE study

RMD Open. 2022;8(1):e002012 doi: 10.1136/rmdopen-2021-002012

Upadacitinib continues to show consistently better clinical responses, compared with adalimumab, through 3 years, including rates of remission and low disease activity, physical function and pain severity.Following the favourable upadacitinib efficacy data seen in the SELECT-COMPARE study at 72 weeks, Fleischmann, et al. assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of upadacitinib versus adalimumab over 3 years in the long-term extension of this study, with promising results. ...

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Effectiveness of baricitinib and tofacitinib compared with bDMARDs in RA: results from a cohort study using nationwide Swedish register data

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/keac068

Data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register and Swedish Registries, show a higher treatment retention and overall equivalent or better treatment response on baricitinib, compared with bDMARDs or tofacitinib, but no statistically significant differences between tofacitinib and bDMARDs.In this largest population-based study to date, comparing RA patients initiating baricitinib, tofacitinib or bDMARDs, Barbulescu, et al. help to fill some of the current knowledge gaps surrounding the effica...

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Janus kinase-targeting therapies in rheumatology: a mechanisms-based approach

Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2022 Jan 5:1–13. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1038/s41584-021-00726-8

The development of targeted small-molecule therapies such as JAK inhibitors, which have varied selective inhibitory profiles, has enabled a paradigm shift in the treatment of diverse disorders, to the extent that they could ultimately enable either complete withdrawal or avoidance of glucocorticoid use in some autoimmune diseases, and could have the potential to regulate any active factor inhibiting the transition to cure.In this review paper, Tanaka, et al. describe the progress in JAK-targetin...

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Effect of dose adjustments on the efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a post hoc analysis of an open-label, long-term extension study (ORAL Sequel)

Clin Rheumatol. 2022 Jan 1. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1007/s10067-021-05908-z

Post-hoc analysis shows that dosing up from tofacitinib 5 to 10 mg BID is associated with improved efficacy for up to 12 months, versus staying on 5 mg BID, and dosing down from 10 to 5 mg BID is not generally associated with a significant loss of efficacy.Although clinical trials have generally shown no significant differences, in terms of efficacy and safety, when switching tofacitinib dose up or down, these per-protocol switches are not directly informative for clinical decision-making in dai...

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Effect of JAK inhibitors on high- and low-density lipoprotein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Clin Rheumatol. 2022. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1007/s10067-021-06003-z

Systematic review and network meta-analysis highlight that RA patients who receive recommended doses of the five approved JAK inhibitors (tofacitinib, baricitinib, upadacitinib, filgotinib, and peficitinib) are likely to experience an increase in serum low- and high-density lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels.JAK inhibitors have been associated with alterations in levels of LDL and HDL cholesterol, which may lead to dyslipidaemia (an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease). However, the e...

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Tofacitinib and risk of cardiovascular outcomes: results from the Safety of Tofacitinib in Routine care patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (STAR-RA) study

Ann Rheum Dis. 2022 Jan 13. Epub ahead of print doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2021-221915

Real-world evidence finds no increased risk of CV outcomes with tofacitinib, in comparison with TNFi, in patients with RA. However, an elevated risk of CV outcomes cannot be ruled out in patients with CV risk factors or history of CVD.Recent post-marketing findings from the ‘ORAL Surveillance’ trial have raised concerns that tofacitinib, in comparison with TNFi, may increase the risk of CV disease in patients with RA who are at least 50 years of age and with at least one risk factor for CVD. To ...

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