Conversion of Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue to Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Fatigue Scores in Two Phase III Baricitinib Rheumatoid Arthritis Trials

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2021;73(4):481-488.

Study shows that conversions from FACIT-F to PROMIS Fatigue are feasible and applicable for RA clinical trials.The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue (FACIT-F), developed for use in cancer patients, has been validated for measuring fatigue in RA, and is often the tool used in European clinical trials; with 10 out of its 13 items being relevant for patients with RA. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), developed and calibrated in the United ...

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Assessment of radiographic progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tofacitinib in long-term studies

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021;60(4):1708-1716.

Long-term evaluation of tofacitinib has found limited progression of structural damage in patients with RA treated with tofacitinib for up to 5 years. Similar results were also observed for patients receiving tofacitinib monotherapy or combination therapy for up to 3 years.It is well known that inflammation in RA leads to structural damage over time, and therapies such as DMARDS have the ability to reduce inflammation whilst inhibiting the progression of structural damage. In this study, van der...

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Trial of Upadacitinib and Adalimumab for Psoriatic Arthritis

N Engl J Med. 2021;384(13):1227-1239.

Upadacitinib efficacy proves to be greater than placebo, and non-inferior to adalimumab, in treating patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Already approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, McInnes, et al. studied oral upadacitinib at a dose of 15 mg or 30 mg, alongside placebo or adalimumab, in this 24-week, Phase III trial, in over 1700 patients with PsA. At the primary endpoint (Week 12), ACR20 response was greater with upadacitinib than placebo, and non-inferior to adalimumab; wi...

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Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with tofacitinib in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a population-based cohort study

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2021 Mar 22:keab294. Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/keab294

A population-based cohort study of 87,653 RA patients has found no evidence for an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) for tofacitinib, versus TNFis, in patients with RA.The introduction of JAKinibs, almost a decade ago, has provided an important oral option for the treatment of RA. However, in recent years, a safety concern, relating to incidence of VTE after treatment, has emerged. Consequently, both the US and European regulatory authorities now recommend caution for use of tofacit...

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Comparative Analysis of BTK Inhibitors and Mechanisms Underlying Adverse Effects

Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 9:630942 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.630942

Understanding of the B-cell receptor signalling pathway led to the identification of a suitable drug target to addresses autoimmunity and inflammation in areas such as MS, RA, pemphigus and SLE. There are currently 22 BTKis in various stages of clinical development. However, AEs such as cardiovascular and bleeding side effects, as well as rash, diarrhoea and infections have been associated with the inhibition of other kinases with a BTKi-binding cysteine in their catalytic domain.Based on clinic...

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JAK selectivity and the implications for clinical inhibition of pharmacodynamic cytokine signalling by filgotinib, upadacitinib, tofacitinib and baricitinib

Ann Rheum Dis. 2021 Mar 19:annrheumdis-2020-219012. Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-219012

The first study to combine in vitro inhibition of cytokine responses in whole blood with clinical pharmacokinetics of individual JAKinibs to model daily cytokine-mediated pharmacodynamic profiles in healthy individuals and patients with RA, has demonstrated that JAKinib potencies depended on cytokine stimulus, pSTAT readout and cell type.Traves and colleagues have observed that JAKinibs have unique, differential effects on specific cytokine signalling pathways, dependent on cytokine stimulus, ST...

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Filgotinib, a Novel JAK1-Preferential Inhibitor for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: An Overview from Clinical Trials

Mod Rheumatol. 2021 Mar 19:1-26. Epub ahead of print. DOI 10.1080/14397595.2021.1902617

Filgotinib is the latest JAKinib to enter the international market for the treatment of RA, receiving regulatory approval in Japan and Europe late last year. In this review paper, Tanaka Y et al. examine the clinical evidence supporting its use as a later-line treatment, in accordance with international RA management guidelines, and provide their expert opinions on JAKinibs from a clinical perspective.The core clinical programme evaluating filgotinib in patients with moderately-to-severely activ...

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Upadacitinib in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Benefit–Risk Assessment Across a Phase III Program

Drug Saf. 2021 Feb 2. DOI: 10.1007/s40264-020-01036-w

Upadacitinib 15 mg has a favourable benefit–risk profile according to an assessment of data from the phase III SELECT clinical trial programme.In this review of data for the once-daily, oral JAK inhibitor, Conaghan PG, et al. provided insights into the benefit–risk profile of upadacitinib in approximately 4400 patients with RA. Based on pooled data from five pivotal studies, benefits and risks were assessed up to the time of regulatory submission, and additional long-term integrated safety revie...

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Effects of One-Year Tofacitinib Therapy on Bone Metabolism in Rheumatoid Arthritis

Osteoporos Int 2021 Feb 9 DOI 10.1007/s00198-021-05871-0

Thought to be the first study of its kind, Hamar, et al. have demonstrated the effect of one-year tofacitinib treatment on bone mineral density (BMD) in RA patients. While the association between RA and osteoporosis is well known, and evidence indicates that up to 70% of these patients have reduced BMD, little information is available on how the JAK inhibitor tofacitinib affects bone status, areal and volumetric BMD, and bone turnover markers. In this prospective study, 30 patients were assessed...

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Safety and Efficacy of Filgotinib: Up to 4-Year Results From an Open-Label Extension Study of Phase 2 Rheumatoid Arthritis Programs

J Rheumatol. 2021 Feb 1:jrheum.201183. DOI: 10.3899/jrheum.201183.

A long-term extension study of filgotinib showed consistent safety profile and sustained efficacy with the drug for up to four years. The DARWIN 3 study, for patients who previously completed either the 24-week DARWIN 1 study (filgotinib + MTX) or the DARWIN 2 study (filgotinib monotherapy), enrolled 739 patients with RA. At the time of analysis, 440 patients had received four years or more of filgotinib. Exposure-adjusted incidence rate per 100 patient-years-of-exposure for TEAEs was 24.6 in th...

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