Incidence, Prevalence, and Co-occurrence of Autoimmune Disorders Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status: A Population-based Cohort Study of 22 Million Individuals in the UK
Lancet. 2023; 401(10391):1878–1890 doi 10.1016/S0140-6736(23)00457-9
Incidence rates for autoimmune diseases increased between 2000 and 2019 in the UK, notably in coeliac disease, Sjogren's syndrome, and Graves' disease. Pernicious anaemia and Hashimoto's thyroiditis had the greatest decrease in incidence. These disorders affected about 10% of the population, with socioeconomic, seasonal, and regional variations observed.