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Showing 48 results for “Preclinical”.

Baricitinib Inhibits Structural Joint Damage Progression in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis – A Comprehensive Review

Arthritis Res Ther 2021;23(1):3.

MRI studies have shown that BARI reduces joint inflammation and damage in patients with moderate-to-severe active RA. This review summarises the effects of BARI on structural joint damage progression and the mechanisms underlying these effects, using MRI data from across the clinical trial program. Early preclinical animal models showed a significant reduction in joint inflammation, ankle width, and bone resorption. Efficacy and safety of BARI have been confirmed in an extensive programme, inclu...

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Preclinical characterisation of itacitinib, a Novel Selective Inhibitor of JAK1, for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases

European Journal of Pharmacology. 2020 Oct 15;885:173505. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173505

Itacitinib is an orally active JAK inhibitor and effectively delayed disease onset, reduced symptom severity, and accelerated recovery of inflammatory diseases in mouse models. Covington M et al demonstrated itacitinib’s high selectivity for JAK 1, its inhibition on IL-2 induced T cell proliferation and JAK/STAT signalling, its ability to also inhibit of the JAK/STAT pathway in response to IL-6 stimulation, and its effect on rat adjuvant induced arthritis model. The study used recombinant enzym...

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Osteoimmunology In Rheumatoid and Psoriatic Arthritis: Potential Effects of Tofacitinib on Bone Involvement

Clin Rheumatol. 2020

Data showing that TOF can inhibit unbalanced osteoclastogenesis in RA suggests that targeting the JAK-STAT pathway can halt bone erosion, as TOF has been shown to reduce articular bone erosion in RA and PsA.The authors in this review summarise current knowledge on the relationship between the immune system and the skeleton before examining the involvement of JAK-STAT signalling in bone homeostasis while discussing the evidence on the benefit of TOF on prevention of bone involvement in RA and PsA...

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Comparison of lipid and lipid-associated cardiovascular risk marker changes after treatment with tocilizumab or adalimumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;0:1-7. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-207872 [Epub ahead of print]

RA patients have increased risk of CVD compared with the general population that is not fully explained by traditional risk factors. This is a post-hoc analysis of data from a clinical trial that compared IL-6 and TNF-α signaling inhibition to compare changes in lipids and lipid-associated CV risk markers in 324 patients treated with TCZ IV q4w or ADA SC q2w for 24 weeks. HDL-SAA and sPLA2 IIA is also measured in an additional subpopulation of 87 and 97 TCZ and ADA patients, respectively.Greater...

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The preclinical pharmacology of the high affinity anti-IL-6R Nanobody® ALX-0061 supports its clinical development in rheumatoid arthritis

Arthritis Res Ther. 2015 May 20;17(1):135. [Epub ahead of print]

Over the last decade, there has been a shift in treatment outcomes for RA; moving from symptom control to achieving remission. The TNF inhibitors have revolutionised treatment in this way, yet there is still a proportion of patients who fail to improve or reach remission. As such, new molecules for the treatment of RA are needed to be developed.This study investigates the in vitro and in vivo properties of ALX-0061, a bispecific Nanobody with a high affinity and potency for IL-6R.Positive pharma...

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Super-enhancers delineate disease-associated regulatory nodes in T cells

Nature. 2015 Feb 16. doi: 10.1038/nature14154. [Epub ahead of print]

Transcription machinery (proteins responsible for activating or ‘switching off’ genes) is not distributed in the genome in a symmetrical (or even) manner. Some parts of the genome, so called super-enhancers (SEs), accumulate an exceptionally high level of proteins relevant to the regulation of transcription (i.e. the machinery is concentrated in particular parts of the genome). In this paper, the investigators asked about the locale of these regions in the genome of T cells. Then they addressed...

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The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of baricitinib, an oral JAK 1/2 inhibitor, in healthy volunteers

Mod J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Dec;54(12):1354-61. doi: 10.1002/jcph.354.

Current biologic therapies for RA, such as biologic cytokine inhibitors, which selectively target inflammatory molecules with an exquisite degree of specificity, are not clinically effective in all patients with rheumatoid arthritis. As such, there remains an unmet clinical need for more effective and better tolerated therapies. Baricitinib (LY3009104, also previously known as INCB028050) is a potent and selective small molecule inhibitor of JAK1/2, which play an important role in cytokine signa...

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Safety and efficacy of baricitinib at 24 weeks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to methotrexate

Ann Rheum Dis. 2015;74(2):333–340

Recent innovations in the treatment of RA have focused on the use of small molecules to inhibit intracellular kinases such as the JAK family. Baricitinib (LY3009104, formerly INCB028050) is an orally administered, potent, selective and reversible inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2, which has shown anti-inflammatory effects, as well as preservation of cartilage and bone, in preclinical rodent studies.

This phase IIb study was designed to investigate multiple doses and dosing regimens of baricitin...

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The activity of JAK-STAT pathways in rheumatoid arthritis: constitutive activation of STAT3 correlates with interleukin 6 levels

Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Nov 17. pii: keu430. [Epub ahead of print]

Non-response, parenteral administration and cost to produce are all aspects associated with the currently available anti-cytokine agents for RA. These related factors mean that alternative drugs are now being developed. Recent developments in therapeutic drugs to treat RA have focused on Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs) transcription pathways. Several cytokines that regulate immune responses in RA, such as IFN-g, IL-6 and IL-10, activate JAK-STAT ...

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The JAK inhibitor tofacitinib suppresses synovial JAK1-STAT signalling in rheumatoid arthritis

Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Nov 14. pii: annrheumdis-2014-206028. doi: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2014-206028. [Epub ahead of print]

Targeting intracellular pathways such as JAK/STAT represents a novel approach to the treatment of RA. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor, proven to be effective in the treatment of RA, yet the pathways affected by tofacitinib and the effects on gene expression in situ are unknown. In this study, Boyle et al. tested the hypothesis that tofacitinib targets cytokine signalling critical to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid synovitis by investigating tofacitinib effects on synovial pathobiology.
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